1. Basics on Harvard Referencing Style: Reference List
It is imperative to indicate that a reference list is referred to as a complete list of all the sources utilized while preparing any piece of writing. This list is composed of the information concerning the sources such as the author, the date of publication, the title of the source, as well as many other details. Any list of Harvard reference should:
Be provided on a separate sheet of paper at the end of any piece of writing
Be organized in alphabetical order by author(s). In case there is no author indicated, then it is ordered by the title of the source, excluding the articles, such as the, a, or an
In case there are multiple works written by the same author, they are supposed to be ordered by date. In case the works are published in the same year, they are to be ordered alphabetically by their titles and are allocated a specific letter (a, b, c, etc) following the date of publication.
Be double spaced: there are to be a full, blank space line between each line of the text
Comprise full references for all the in-text references utilized
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2. Basics on Harvard Referencing: In-Text Citations
In-text references should be included following the application of a quote or paraphrased taken from other pieces of work.
In-text references are referred to as the references provided within the main body of the work and refer to a paraphrase or a quote. In the majority of cases, they are shorter than other references that full. The full in-text citations references are to be in the reference list. In Harvard referencing, each in-text citation is composed of the author(s)’s or editor(s)’s last name, the year it was published, as well as the page number(s). Applying an example author James Joyce, this takes the following form:
Joyce (1922, p. 155) states. Or (Joyce, 1922, p. 1666)
(NB: p. is referred to a single page whereas pp. – to several pages)
Two or Three Authors:
Whenever citing any source with either two or three authors, indicate all last names, for example:
Johnson, Walsh, and Berg (2020, p. 202) state… Or (Jonson, Walsh & Berg, 2020, p. 202)
Four or More Authors:
In the following case, the first author’s last name is to be indicated followed by ‘et al., for instance:
Steward et al. (2018, p. 978) state… Or (Steward et al., 2018, p. 978)
It is recommended to apply the organization or company responsible for the post in the author’s place. If not, it is reasonable to utilize the title in italics:
(A Reference-book to Harvard Style, 2019, pp. 111-113)
Multiple Works composed by the Same Author published in the Same Year:
If you reference different works composed by one author released for instance, in 1990, they are to be allocated a certain letter (a, b, c, etc.) and the year of its publication should be included. The following allocation is carried out in the reference list, so is done alphabetically in accordance with to the author’s last name and the title of the source:
(Jackson, 2018a, p. 981) or Jackson (2018b, p. 12)
Multiple Works Citation that is in the Same Parenthesis:
It is recommended to list all the in-text citations in an ordinary way, but there should be semicolons between various references, for instance:
(Maxwell, 2015, p. 99; Simpson, 2019; Anderson, 2020, pp. 122-134)
Citing Various Editions of the Same Source in One Parenthesis:
You should indicate the author(s)’s last name only 1 time by the due date, which is to be separated by semicolons:
Maxwell (2011; 2015; 2020) states… Or (Maxwell, 2011; 2015; 2020)
Citing a Reference without any date indicated:
In the following case, it is recommended to indicate ‘no date’ in the place of the year: (Maxwell, n.d., p. 111).
Citing a Secondary Source:
In the following case, it is necessary to note the reference applied first followed by ‘cited in’ as well as the original author, for example:
Maxwell 2015 (as cited in Jackson, 2020, p. 11) or (Simpson, 1922, cited in Mitchell, 2018, p. 990).
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3. How to Cite Various Types of Sources
In-text citations are constantly used across source types unless indicated explicitly, let’s assume the in-text citations use the rules mentioned above.
How to Cite a Book in accordance with the Harvard Style of Formatting
Book referencing is regarded as the simplest format in the style of Harvard referencing. The key format is as indicated below:
Example of Book Referencing:
Jackson, MT & Simpson, J 2018, A guide to Harvard style. Oxford Publishing, Oxford.
How to Cite an Edited Book following the Harvard Style
The edited books are composed of numerous chapters composed by various authors that are edited by a single editor or a group of editors. Their reference format is considered very similar to that of the book reference, but instead of the author’s last name, the editor’s last name is utilized followed by (ed. or eds.). The basic format is provided below:
Editor’s last name(s), initial(s). (ed. or eds.), the year of publication, Title. The publishing house, and the Place of publication.
Example of the Edited Book:
William, ST (eds.) 2015, Referencing: a detailed guide to rules of citation. Oxford Publishing, Oxford
How to Cite a Chapter in the Edited Book following the Harvard Formatting Style
In order to cite a chapter, it is recommended to add the author of the chapter and its title to the reference. The format should be as indicated below:
Example of the Chapter in the Edited Book:
Jackson, BN 2015, ‘Harvard rules of formatting’, in Simpson, ST (ed.) A detailed guide to citation standards, NY Publishers, New York, pp. 635-666.
How to Cite A Chapter in the Book Edited
Indicate the author’s last name of the chapter and not the editor’s one.
How to Cite an E-Book following the Harvard Formatting Style
To reference an e-book, info on its collection, online location and the date when it was accessed as well as the author’s last name, the title and the year of publishing should be indicated:
Jackson, ST 2020, Title. E-book format [e-book reader], viewed 23 August 2020,
Example of an E-Book:
Kackson-Pollak, Y, & Ling-Yu, JOK 2012, Applied sciences, E-book library [online], viewed 1 January 2019, .
Journal Article Citation in Harvard
The format of citation a journal article ought to be as below:
Journal Article Example
Smith, C 2018, ‘What to do to control oneself at work’, The Practical Sociology, vol. 1050, no. 191, pp.1231-1555.
Example of a Journal Article Published Online
Smith, C ‘What to do to control oneself at work’, The Practical Sociology, vol. 62, no. 9, viewed 23 August 2020, .
Newspaper Article Cited Keeping to the Harvard Format
The newspaper article citation is the same as that of a journal article. However, it is imperative to note that instead of the exact number of the volume and issue, the edition, as well as date of publication, are to be provided:
Author surname(s), initial(s) Year, ‘Article title’, Newspaper Title (edition -optional), day month, page number(s).
Example of a Newspaper Article citation:
Murphy, JA 2018, ‘Geopolitics changes in the modern world’, The Daily Telegraph (Weekly edition), 6 July, pp.1-2.
Either Online Newspaper Article or Online Journal Citation Peculiarities
To cite such articles, the page number(s) section from the printed journal or newspaper references are to be provided with the URL of the article(s) where it could be accessed from, as well as the date of its access. Therefore, the reference is to be as below:
Author surname(s), initial(s) Year, ‘Title of article’, Title of the journal, volume, (issue/season) [online], viewed 02 August 2013, .
And the reference for an online newspaper article should be referenced as follows:
Author surname(s), initial(s) Year, ‘Article title’, Newspaper Title (edition), day month [online], viewed 23 August 2020.
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How to Cite Non-Print Materials following the Harvard Formatting Style
How to Cite an Online Photograph in accordance with the Harvard Formatting Style
The basic format should be as indicated below:
Photographer’s last name, initials, the publication year, the Title of photograph [online], viewed 13 August 2014, .
Example of an Online Photograph:
Mills, JE 1852 Paris at night [online], viewed 23 August 2020, .
Film Citation Sample
The key format to cite a film is as follows:
Example of a Film:
A clockwork orange 1971, directed by Stanley Kubric [Film]. Polaris Productions, Los Angeles.
How to Cite a Piece of Music following the Harvard Formatting Style
The basic format so as to cite an album should be as indicated below:
Queen 1991, Show must go on [Official video] viewed 31 August 2016, <https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=t99KH0TR-J4>.
How to Cite a Website in accordance with the Harvard Formatting Style
The basic format in order to cite a website should be as indicated below:
Author surname(s), initial(s) the Year of publishing, Title of page/site [Online], viewed 23 August, .
Example of the Website:
The World Bank 2020, Who we are [Online], viewed 23 August 2020, <https://www.worldbank.org/en/who-we-are>.