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This research is aimed at analyzing the journey of women in the U.S from the time they were considered as ‘flower girls’, throughout their struggle to change common bias, and until they managed to join the military on an equal basis with men. Even though women have been actively involved in the U.S. military, equal treatment and opportunities within the military are something that has continued to elope serving women. Despite their huge input in the military, nearly 10% of positions (1,000 positions) (Pellerin, 2015) within the military remain closed for women. These include infantry, special operations units, and armor to name a few (Pellerin, 2015). However, in line with the U.S’s intention to achieve gender equality in the country, the military has joined common efforts and have slowly improved how women are perceived in the military. Women have now an opportunity to serve in combat positions just as their male counterparts.

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Annotated Bibliography

Allison, K. F., Keenan, K., Nagai, T., Sell, T. C., Abt, J. P., Deluzio, J., … Lephart, S. M. (2015). Musculoskeletal, biomechanical, and physiological gender differences in the US military. Army Medical Department Journal, 22-32.

The source presents research on both strengths and weaknesses present in men and women, who are actively involved in the U.S military. The source offers detailed information on musculoskeletal, psychological, and biochemical differences between males and females working in the military. According to the results, women demonstrate better performance in flexibility and balance. On the other hand, men show their superiority in strength and aerobic capacity. In conclusion, gender differences affect the capabilities of their bodies, and this finding had to be considered during training in order to minimize unnecessary injuries and, thus, ensure a healthy unit ready for combat at any time.

The source suggests evidence-based information on how men and women perform differently in military exercises, demonstrating that women have to be integrated in all military undertakings to ensure a robust and diversified military. Moreover, the source provides credible information, which advocates that the three most crucial disciplines in the army, such as biomechanical, physiological, and musculoskeletal, require health service persons. Therefore, the source is relevant to the research, since it provides helpful information on how both men and women can remain healthy in gender-specific training.

Brownson, C. (2014). Rejecting patriarchy for equivalence in the US military: A response to Anthony King’s “Women Warriors: Female Accession to Ground Combat.” Armed Forces and Society, 42(1), 235-242.

The source demonstrates patriarchy concept as the major hindrance towards women having equal opportunities in the military combat positions. The author suggests that kinship exercised in the military influences different genders that occupy various positions in the army, and, thus, if the influence of patriarchy is not checked, any attempt to enhance the role of women in combat will be unsuccessful. However, it is recommended that for women to be fully integrated into combat positions, the military needs to discard patriarchy as a mean of defining the relationships between males and females. Moreover, equivalency and kinship should be adopted as a new way of interaction between genders to ensure that women continue to be accepted to military combat positions.

The source reveals crucial information on the stereotypes, which continue to undermine the women’s dream to be equal in the military. Besides, by focusing on the Anthony King’s assertions on “Women Warriors: Female Accession to Ground Combat” and checking all the fact, the author provides non-biased information on the stereotypes that affect the opportunity of having full and fruitful integration of women in combat positions in the U.S military.

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Dye, J. L., Eskridge, S. L., Tepe, V., Clouser, M. C., & Galarneau, M. (2016). Characterization and comparison of combat-related injuries in women during OIF and OEF. Military Medicine, 181(1), 92-98.

The source provides a detailed coverage on how women get injured while serving in the army similarly to their male counterparts particularly in Afghanistan and Iraq. Besides, it is clear from the article that women roles have been suppressed in the military, since their injuries cases have also been accounted together with the statics covering injuries suffered by males. Therefore, a research (n=835) was done to check the wide accepted notion that men were injured more than were women in the battles. The findings revealed that almost the same number of women and men, who served in Iraq and Afghanistan, were injured in the same way. The study recommended conducting a further research on injuries, as a proactive way of cautioning women that they are exposed to more risky roles in the military.

The article provides credible information on the changing role of women after the Iraq and Afghanistan war. Moreover, the credibility of the information is backed by a research with a good sample size accompanied by statistical analysis. Therefore, this source is relevant to the research at hand, since it reveals avenues of bias common among women that have affected the active women.

MacKenzie, M. H. (2015). Beyond the band of brothers: The US military and the myth that women can’t fight. Cambridge, United Kingdom: Cambridge University Press.

This article provides a detailed information on how long combat position in the military has been positioned as a male-oriented job. The reason for such perceptions is the common myth of the “band of brothers” that portrays women inferior to men in combat. The source uses fact analysis, by collecting and covering in detail all facts used to conclude that women are incapable of participating in combat. Moreover, the assertion is that as long as the military myth of ‘band of brothers’ exists, recent achievement of 2013, granting women more opportunities and allowing them to occupy combat position, can do little to help. The author recommends that there is a need to fight the stereotypes within the American society where women continue to be inferior to men in military positions.

This article offers credible information on societal factors, which continue to undermine the goal of having women participate in combat based on their ability. Moreover, the information is presented in a manner that appreciates the detrimental factors existing in the society, what makes it a good platform with helpful lessons can positively affect the integration process.

Pellerin, C. (2015). Carter opens all military occupations, positions to women. U.S. Department of Defense. Retrieved from http://www.defense.gov/News/Article/Article/632536/carter-opens-all-military-occupations-positions-to-women

The source sheds light on the changes made by the U.S military aimed at improving women’s role and opportunities. It outlines the areas where women have found it hard to overcome barriers. When considering this fact, the defense secretary recommends military leaders to ensure that job allocation is based on the ability and qualifications of the candidate and not on his/her gender. The source also outlines the guidelines for the integration of women into their workplace, since they continue to experience lack of confidence about their capabilities, particularly physical ability. However, there is an agreement that full integration of women in all military processes will only make the U.S military stronger.

The source provides relevant information for the research at hand, since it analyses the opportunities that have been opened up for women. Moreover, the credibility of the source is affirmed by the fact that the information is provided by the military itself, reveling an inside perspective on the matter. The source is thus relevant to the research since it offers an inside information on the realignment.

Simons, A. (2000). Women can never “belong” in combat. Orbis, 44, 3, 451-461.

The source avails information on how integrating women into the military can be helpful and detrimental at the same time to the welfare of the country. According to the pro-integration viewpoint, since any beliefs and cultural practices can be changed, so can rules on combat actions. However, the author calls for the appreciation of the fact that a change in policy cannot influence the norms in the combat groups. Besides, it is the assertion that both groups that are either pro or anti-integration of women need to appreciate that a change in the composition of the combat membership is bound to be impactful on the morale of the combat members. Therefore, the author recommends for the integration process to be based on potential repercussion of incorporating women in the combat rather than on the belief that combat rules can be changed just as other behaviors have been modified by the legislation.

The source offers relevant information, which outlines the primary points of view of anti and pro-integration of women into combat positions groups. Moreover, the source is important to the research, since it weighs the discussion of integrating women in the combat position through the action-reaction approach highlighting the crucial facts that cannot be assumed while dealing with combat changes.

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Tepe, V., Yarnell, A., Nindl, B. C., Van Arsdale, S., & Deuster, P. A. (2016). Women in combat: Summary of findings and a way ahead. Military Medicine, 181(1), 109-18.

The source offers information channeled towards helping the women take more roles in the military. According to the findings of the resource, the successful integration of women in combat requires a supportive system for women. The source asserts that successful integration will also depend on women’s physical health and well-being. It, therefore, assumes that thorough research is needed on how women can be encouraged to use safe contraceptives as means of safeguarding them from unwanted pregnancies, thus ensuring that they are physically fit to be actively involved in the new position. In conclusion, women require a helpful support system in their new roles.

The source is useful since it suggests crucial gap points that can jeopardize the actions aimed at integrating women in combat positions. Besides, the source also offers solutions to the needed support system, ensuring that women are physically, mentally, and psychologically ready to take their new roles in the U.S military. The source is relevant to the research since it gives insights on the needed realignment within the army that can be helpful in supporting women in their new roles in the military.