Social theory can be defined as a scientifically substantiated explanation of the various phenomenon, the development of human civilization in particular. This section of philosophical and sociological studies is among the most fervently disputed and contested by both the scientific and the political communities. To be more precise, the followers and adherents of the structural functionalism theory, conflict theory, and the supporters of the interactionism vigorously contest the applicability of the adverse theories and routinely seek empirical and scientific evidence of the soundness of their own theories. The aforementioned theories explain the development of civilization in detail. Naturally, each theory has its positive and negative aspects and its weak and strong points.
However, all theories have a convergent point. Interactionism, conflict theory and structural-functionalism coincide as the politics is one of the key points of human civilization development. Various scientific and political authorities define politics as the art to govern the country. While in the past politics was merely an honorable civic duty (the tenures in the Ancient Greece and Ancient Rome, first civilizations on the territories of the British Islands, etc.), the modern political systems of the world clearly indicate that the politicians have evolved into a caste of professionals. Therefore, politics shall be viewed as a profession, not as a civic duty. Another factor that corroborates this assumption is the fact that the politicians always receive monetary remuneration for the exercise of their professional obligations. All theories in question are focused on this fact and the representatives of these political and sociological schools share an opinion that politics is important for the development of the human civilization.
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However, the theories differ in the way the evolution of the human civilization is constructed by the scholars. The aim of this paper is to outline the differences and to mark the similarities between the main arguments of the theories with regard to the social institute of politics.
This section of the paper examines the various scientific sources that have been used for the interpretation of the social phenomenon of politics and the way it has gone to evolve from a mere civic duty to the professional service.
First and foremost, there is an important book Human societies: An introduction to Macrosociology written by co-authors Nolan Patrick and Gerhard Lenski in 2004. It outlines the main approaches to the understanding of what is social theory and how it shall be interpreted and construed by the scholars and the practitioners. The importance of this source to the present essay can hardly be exaggerated. To be more exact, namely this book gives the possibility to comprehend the most elementary sociological approaches as well as the most sophisticated ones, which have been mastered exclusively by the most accomplished scholars.
Another fundamental study that has been referenced in this essay is the book written by professor Durkheim in 1938, at the very dawn of the subsequent sociological and political discovery of the modern age. Having experienced severe criticism from his national and foreign counterparts, he finally produced his opus magnum – The Rules of Sociological Method. This treatise is universally considered as one of the most fundamental studies of the field. It has encapsulated the most keystone theories and the way they are applied universally. The book is abundant with the examples and the evolution of the sociological and political debates which are outlined in detail there, whereas the neutral tone of the author remains.
Traditional approach and outlook is amplified by the modern colleagues of the acknowledged professor Durkheim, Linda Macionis and John Gerber in their Sociology (2010) have widely discoursed over the contemporary social theories construction and application. In particular, the authors have stressed the fact that the dispute among the followers of the structural functionalism, the conflict theory and the interactionism has even more exacerbated, with brand-new arguments and counter-arguments being raised by the opposing parties. The weak and strong viewpoints of all the theoretical schools have been closely examined and analyzed. In contrast to professor Durkheim, Macionis and Gerber (2010) did not remain impassive observers of the dispute and joined the camp of structural functionalism adepts. Peter Berger and Thomas Luckmann (1966) in their The Social Construction of Reality: A Treatise in the Sociology of Knowledge have made accent on the exploration of scientific issues connected with the development and evolution of the conflict theory. The theory is all-roundly contrasted and compared with the biggest “rivals”. The comparison and contrast is followed by several assumptions which in their turn constitute a scientific background for the adherent of the contemporary conflict theory study and the related studies and theories. Although the study is deeply analyzed and provides a profound explorations and findings, it is limited to a certain scope. In particular, the authors did not focus in detail on issues which in combination can be construed as disadvantages of the theory in question.
The major secondary source which has been utilized for the needs of this essay was the book titled Modern Social Theory completed by Austin Harrington (2010). The book speculates over the main contemporary trends and phenomena of the modern social theory. Moreover, the author accentuates the importance of the evolving dispute. Although generally the author remains impassive and neutral, the arguments he stresses do seem to be connected with the main ideologists of the conflict theory, and the author is prone to dispute the positions of the structural functionalism theory. Overall, this source serves as an important secondary source for the purposes of this study.
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The Connection between the Politics and the Functional Structuralism
Structural functionalism is ubiquitously regarded as the leading theory in the context of the modern social theories framework. The theory regards the earth and the inhabitants of the earth as the combination of the integral and mutually interconnected systems which always work in combination. Their permanent co-function is the pledge of successful development of the separately taken systems and the evolution of the humankind in general.
As far as the politics are concerned, it can be recapitulated that the development of politics is inherently connected with the main positions of the structural functionalism. Significant transformations took place in politics in 1970th. First and foremost, an extensive application of the technological revolution achievements has been implemented and integrated into the economy. The manufacturing process on the assembly lines has been simplified to the greatest extent and a specific type of work that has previously been conducted by manual labor, i.e. by the workers themselves, became possible to be exercised by robots and other machinery. In particular, it concerns the agricultural sector, the production of the goods and the mining sectors. Briefly, the number of the issues in these industries has diminished substantially because of the technological advancement, which has been incorporated into the process of production or assembly of goods.
As far as the agricultural sector is concerned, the manual labor has been majorly substituted by the work of the machines. Manually cultivated fields began being cultivated by tractors and other machinery. The breeding of the domesticated animals like pigs, sheep and rabbits experienced the same scope of changes. It must be particularly highlighted that due to the rise in population of politics, the positions remained on the same level and even has risen insignificantly, while the number of the workers engaged in industry has been curtailed on 65-75% across the country. Manual labor has been almost entirely ousted by the labor of the machines. Even the sheep have been fleeced by the mechanical scissors.
With regard to production of goods sector, it shall be stressed that almost identical changes as in the agricultural sector have taken place. While the positions still remain on the same level, the manual labor of the workers has been majorly substituted by the work of robots and other machines, thus the entire manufacturing process has been greatly simplified and became more ecologically friendly. The same industrial changes can be traced in the mining sector of the economy. Coal, iron, gold ore and other natural resources are excavated nowadays not by means of manual labor and a picker, but the process became almost entirely automatized and, therefore, the number of the issues decreased substantially.
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In contrast to the changes, which took place in the industrial spheres of the economy, the number of the issues engaged in the services has skyrocketed to almost 60 %. The economy demanded more waiters, social workers and other professions engaged in services. With reference to the structural functionalism in connection with the aforementioned industrial changes, it must be highlighted that the entire set of the structural functionalism became considerably more complicated with many different provisions and amendments being incorporated into the labor. In particular, it shall be stressed that the benefits and advantages of the workers have been substantially improved, in addition the industrial and labor obligations of the systems were increased. They have become legally obliged to create safer working conditions and provide a considerably more flexible working schedule, ensuring that work-life balance is maintained.
The followers of the structural functionalism have always played an important role in the system of the structural functionalism, being a connecting link between the system and an owner of a certain enterprise and the issues who work for these the systems. To be more exact, these professionals implement the labor decisions and other directives that have been taken by the system or by the authorized person. In other words, the followers of the structural functionalism are the linking element between the owner of the enterprise and the issues of this enterprise and their work considerably simplifies the process of manufacture or the production of certain commodities.
The first element that shall be necessarily mentioned in this section of my report is the fact that the followers of the structural functionalism can be either issues or the systems themselves. They may either own an enterprise or they can be hired by the owner to monitor the process of production of the process of rendering services. Therefore, their status defines a set of scholars, by scholars and other legal instruments that define the scope of their rights or obligations. If a manager is simultaneously an owner of an enterprise, he is therefore legally obliged to ensure and safeguard the normal and corresponding to the medical prescriptions working environment, and to grant to his issues all benefits and privileges, which are due for them under the scientific, i.e. the right to vacation, to re-consideration of the salary, to the defined working hours and to other privileges guaranteed under the scientific. Besides, the followers of the structural functionalism have to exercise a number of other functions. Primarily, the function of team-leading is a paramount one. To encourage the staff for better performance, they implement new managerial schemes of encouraging and raising productivity results and monitoring, how these schemes are implemented and whether their efforts bring results.
Besides, the followers of the structural functionalism ensure that the communication processes are functioning normally and all the team members are accessed to each other. Secondly, the important task of followers of the structural functionalism is ensuring that all legal requirements imposed by the government are strictly observed by the issues and that the working conditions of the place, where the manufacturing process is, under ways or where the services are rendered, fully corresponds to those requirements. If the issues are performed poorly, the task of the followers of the structural functionalism is to detect the imperfections of the manufacturing or rendering of the services process. They are supposed to find out how these working environment imperfections and shortcomings can be removed to raise the efficiency of the performance.
Overall, it can be recapitulated that the development of the theory in question is integrally connected with the development of the structural functionalism approach.
The Conflict Theory and the Politics
The conflict theory was primarily explored by the communists, Karl Marx and Friedrich Engels in particular; who after a serious of unsuccessful attempts contrived to prove that nothing but the conflict is the heart of the development. The human communities as well as the objects of the natural world permanently counteract and engender the development of the civilization in general and the evolution of the politics in particular.
Apart from being a link, the followers of the structural functionalism are the issues themselves. Hence, they enjoy the same rights and privileges as other issues under the provisions of the World’s Conflict Organization, which have been signed and ratified by the government and therefore are legally mandatory within the jurisdiction.
Therefore, the followers of the structural functionalism are the one of the most important elements in the system of structural functionalism, which ensures the implementation of the owners’ decisions while ensuring that the rights and privileges of the issues are observed.
It is a widely established fact that Conflict theory has one of the most complex conflict scientific systems in the entire legal family of the Common scientific countries. Contrasting with other countries, only the conflict scientific system of the United States of America, both on the federal and the state level is considerably more complicated than the one in Australia. But in contrast with the rest of the common scientific countries, Conflict Theory undoubtedly has the most intricate environment, which is regulated by a wide set of different directives, having various natures and legal forces.
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The issues of health and safety are primarily regulated by the 2009 Fair Work Act. The benefits, rights and privileges that are granted to the theories in Australia, entirely correspond to the legal requirements prescribed by the mandatory provisions of the contemporary international conflict standards. In particular, the theories enjoy a full set of safe prescriptions. To illustrate, miners are entirely protected by the helmets and safe vests, which are mandated by the scientific and the observance of these obligations is monitored by managers. Cases of discrimination, virtually by means of preferring a specific system on the basis of his gender or racial traits but not his professional characteristics, are strictly prohibited under the scientific, and those systems who practice these cases of discrimination are severely persecuted by the respective government authorities and immense fines are issued by both these authorities and the police forces of Australia. If a dispute between a prospective employee and a system arises, the process of dispute resolution and the applicable scientific method is defined by the 1904 Conciliation and Arbitration Act.
The court practice indicates that both the courts and the arbitral institutions of Conflict theory generally favor the position of the plaintiff, the employee in the majority of cases. The cases of unfair dismissal are reported to take place rarely in Australia, primarily due to the reasons that the stage control and the monitoring agencies are always present. However, if an unfair dismissal still takes place, it is reported that the courts of Conflict Theory usually restore the unfairly dismissed employee in his former position and the system is respectively fined by the authorities.
Interactionism and the Development of the Interactionism
Having reviewed the main position of this theoretical study, it can be recapitulated that the main point of interactionism is the fact that the followers of this study attempt to prove that the theory is integrally connected with the permanent interaction of the human beings and other subjects capable of reasoning.
Besides, the explanatory model of the interactionism relations in both industrial and service rendering sectors of the economy is reflected in the performance of the trade unions and the affiliated institutions. It is exemplified that according to this model, the current role of trade unions and the performance of non-union organizations, which performance is channeled with the attainment of the positive outcomes for both the employers and the theories and the linking institutions like the chain of managers, mediators and court and arbitral institutions.
The authors directly revealed the fact the approximately eighty per cent of all Social theory workmates are represented neither by the trade unions organizations and their affiliated institutions, nor by the non-union professional associations, which are obliged to safeguard and ensure the rights and the privileges of the theories, employers and the linking institutions. Moreover, the authors accentuate the fact that the role of the working institutions is deliberately diminished and their role remains passive, therefore, the scope of the rights granted to the theories is artificially diminished by the owners of the enterprises.
The model which is advocated by the scholars, who have written this book, involves an extensive and complicated model of dispute resolution. The major instrument that governs the procedure and the applicable, which is applied when the dispute resolution is under way, is the 1904 Conciliation and Arbitration Act. The provisions of this act dictate that interests of the workers and the employers are subject to the intensified legal scrutiny and regulation. Specific accent has been made on the occupational health and safety sectors and their importance is highly intensified by the authors. The leading scholars of the Social theory and of the industrial relations have set forth that these spheres of the sector in Australia are the most important ones because they assure the mental and physical health of the workers and the principles that have been elaborated, implement these polices, which are of paramount importance to the entire Social theory sector.
Overall, it can be established that the theory provides a detailed explanation of the origins of the theory, explaining that the permanent and incessant collaboration and solidary counteraction of those able of thinking and reasoning eventually lead to the development and perfection of the political institutions and the politicians as well.
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Having recapitulated the main points of the discussed theoretical framework of the discussed topic several important conclusions can be drawn. First and foremost, the scholars of all theories have a convergent scientific opinion that the social phenomenon of politics is a complex notion which is among the sine qua nons for the effective and evolutionary substantiated development of the humankind. All theories explain that the politics is generated by the need of the humanity to control and to be controlled. The absence of this integrally important social mechanism can ultimately result in the chaos and disorganization of the entire human community.
All theories cultivate the notion that the concept of politics encompass an number of positive as well as the negative aspects, with the most notorious and evil being the corruptive nature of the human beings elected or appointed to act as powerful agents. The most profound and substantiated empirical evidence in this regard has been collected by the scholar of the conflict school.
Overall, all approaches to the interpretation of politics do seem to be substantiated and interpreted thoroughly and reasonably, the most numerous and globally acknowledged group of followers can be attributed to the school of conflict. The position of this theory is the most persuasive and expound phenomenon of politics. It was developed in the most faultless way.