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Psychological Foundations of Culture

Human psychology interested representatives of all scientific associations, however, evolutional analysis of psychological features and their influence on cultural development is the issue of current interest. Psychological peculiarities of cultural development deal with regularities of behaviorism studying as the part of cognitive analysis.

Evolutional psychology is the combination of biology and cognitive science. According to evolutional psychology, the human mind is perceived as a set of information processing mechanisms that have emerged in the process of natural selection to answer the issue of adaptation faced by our ancestors, hunters and gatherers. The fundamental idea of evolutionary psychology refers to Darwin’s theory, based on survival of the fittest (Cosmides, Tooby, 20)

Sociobiology ignores the mind and focuses on behavior, whereas evolutionary psychology regards the mind as the central locus of adaptation. According to this point of view, stimulating factors, that influenced all human beings on different stages of their psychological development, are to be perceived as independent variables, causes of universals in human psychology, interpreted in all countries by different representatives commonly.

However, regularities of psychological representation could be identified as dependent variable. The authors (Cosmides, Tooby, 24) identify Standard Social Science Model as the complex representation of psychological peculiarities, influenced by social and cultural factors. Conscious stance of individuality depends on cultural features as the part of social identity.

The ontological purpose of evolutional psychology is the fundamental explanation of human nature – an explanation of the psychological mechanisms. The empirical performance of cross-cultural studying analyzes evolutionary psychology, adapted to the practical social problems.

Moreover, Cosmides and Tooby (25) explain the difference between the two approaches, describing social and anthropological view of the nature of human being in the most adapted environmental form, whereas evolutional psychology perceives people as holders of species-oriented psychological mechanisms, helping to improve the probability of fitness. However, limitation of this approach is based on the biological orientation of this studying, whereas complex model analysis helps to examine various aspects in human affairs.

Therefore, Standard Social Science Model represents the universal human nature, understood as an archetype of intellectual and cultural heritage, influenced by social factors (Cosmides, Tooby, 35). However, Nativism challenges case analysis, highlighting genetically predisposition to the psychological and social categories.

Whereas, according to the case analysis of psychological features, human being’s personality depends on his or her forefathers’ heritage. Therefore, an individual tends to be realized sufficient in the midst of society, according to the unique intellectual potential staying unaffected by genetic predisposition. Nevertheless, these approaches clarify important points of human psychology in complex implementation.

The cultural analysis of human psychology is an independent cause that forms individuality of the human mind. The category of cultural psychology refers to cultural identity, values, and ethnicity of a human being. The unity of these factors develops individuality.

Nevertheless, adaptation is an important factor that causes design changes in human mind. The interdependence between evolutionary psychology and culture influences such issues as the differentiation of various forms of cultural events, such as the perceived culture, introduced by the explanation of cultural phenomena of the psychological mechanisms and related environmental approach. The transmitted culture may influence the development of a new adaptation, which affects the culture itself, creating cultural co-evolutionary adaptation.

Natural selection influenced various types of adaptation, such as language that was based on domination of the certain culture carriers and their representation of the language system (Cosmides, Tooby, 67).

Moreover, according to the savanna hypothesis (Cosmides, Tooby, 81), traditions, symbols and signals were formed according to certain intellectual predisposition of our ancestors. For example, certain colors cause unconscious reaction, information about which transmitted genetically. However, general reaction on the color is based on the psychological associations of a certain individual.

Information spreading process played the crucial role in the evolution of human being. Interpretation of certain events influenced individuals’ desires to share the knowledge by means of writing and painting, which eventually developed mechanisms and processes, presented in modernity. Evolutional theory presented in the study clarifies the issue of psychological analysis, influencing cultural categories of Standard Social Science Model. The investigation is limited by the cultural analysis of general archetypes. Further examination based on contrastive analysis of cultural archetypes of different civilizations and discovering of the cross-cultural inequities would balance the lack of empirical data and practical development of the investigation

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