The development of mobile communication systems has revolutionized the means of communication of people across the world. The evolution of wireless technologies is happening rather slowly, but it is supposed to reach its goal when the fourth and fifth generations appear. People will use the mobile networks that rely on the development of manual terminals. Also, there will be an issue of terminals having access to numerous wireless technologies. The user terminals should be able to access different and numerous technologies at the same time and provide the platform for combining the flow of different technologies. The evolution of wireless technologies has reached the unified target however, it followed different paths before fulfilling its goal. The main aim of having a unified target is to establish a good relationship between flexibility and efficient performance in the mobile environment.
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The first generation worked to create the notion of the mobile voice, which is basic in regard to communication, while the second generation introduced a chance of bigger capacity. 2G was immediately followed by the third generation that required data operating at higher speeds in order to open the doors for a mobile broadband experience. The mobile broadband experience has undergone the process of realization by the fourth generation. The fourth-generation has capability of providing quick access to a wide range of telecommunication devices, comprising advanced mobile services, supportive fixed and mobile networks. The networks have increased the connection-based applications and helped the customers enjoy support from low to high mobility connection applications, as well as the wide range of data consumption rates that depend on the demands of the service and multi-users surroundings. The fourth-generation provides the platform for the development of the fifth generation. Fifth-generation is still under development and is believed to have more efficient technology than other generations. Efficient technologies are useful in interconnecting the entire world. This paper gives an advanced level profile on the LTE (Long term evolution) and WI (World interoperability) that lead to the development of a generation of mobile broadband in communication systems.
Wireless generation refers to the shift in the fundamental nature of the service, including the compatibility in the transmission technology and the development of new and advanced frequency bands. New generations can be expected to appear in the interval of ten years, and some of the improvements can be observed in the shift from the first to the second generation. The first movement that changed the first generation to second generation happened in 1981. Afterward, there was a third-generation which consisted of multimedia support. The 3G lead to the spread of spectrum transmission, and the appearance of 4G that has IP switched networks happened in 2011. During the last few years, there has been witnessed a phenomenal growth in the wireless network industry, concerning mobile technology and the number of subscribers (Yano et al, 2006). The shift in mobile technology from fixed technology started happening with the beginning of the century. The research carried out in the last six years established that now we have almost four times more mobile cell subscriptions than the fixed telephones. The vendors and mobile network operators have benefited from the importance of efficient networks. The subsequent and next generation networks are likely to be 4G and 5G. The new generation networks operate in the multitude of different systems which interact in the IP center network design. The 5G networks comprise the core that can be reorganized. The core can not be divergent it is rather convergent in regard to the modern technologies, consisting of cognition of radio and nanotechnology that are all based on the IP platforms. The challenges of the initial generations automatically lead to the development of the new generations. The challenges which have already been faced in the previous generations, such as 3G and 4G, contributed to the need of having 5G. This paper discusses the development of mobile communication systems from first generation to fifth generation, including a detailed study of different access schemes.
The First Generation
The first generation mobile systems relied on the analog for transmission services in regard to speech. The first mobile system in the entire world started operating in 1979. It was used by NTT in Tokyo, Japan. In the period of at least two years, the cellular generation reached Europe. In 1982, AMPS was launched in the United States. The two most popular and common analogue systems included NMT and TACS. The system was operational, with allocation of 40-MHz bandwidth, with the frequency range of 800 to 900MHz by FCC for AMPS (Uchida & Matsumoto, 2003).The slightest reuse factor that would be applied in order to fulfill 18db SIR with application of direct antennas was found to be 7db hence, a seven-cell reuse pattern could be adopted for AMPS. Transmission frequency that is required by transmission from the base stations to mobile exists in the range of 824-849 MHz AMPS. Transmission occurs through the forward channel, but not the backward. The same frequency level is required for the reverse channel which involves transmission from mobile to base stations. TACS makes use of the frequency modulation (FM) technique that occurs in the radio transmission. Traffic is normally multiplexed into a system called FDMA system.
|Transportation Technology||Description / definitions||Transmission Speed||Advantages/ disadvantages|
|TDMA||Multiple access to the 2G technology.||The data and voice are transmitted at
9.7 kilobits per second.
|Requires low consumption of the battery for the transmission, and has speed which is close to that of 3G technologies.|
|GSM||Communication is 2G digital and involves cell phone technology.||Voice and data use the
900Mega Hetz and 1.8Giga Heltz frequencies. In the US it operates in the 1.9GHz PCS, bands up to
9.6kilobits per second.
|There is global worldwide roaming that envelops about 180 countries, and can only deliver messages up to 160 characters. The message services are quite slow.|
|GPRS||It exists for the 2.5G technology and supports packet data.||The data is transmitted up to 115kilo bits per second. The AT&T Wireless GPRS network can transmit data at 40kilobits per second to 60kilo bits per second.||Messages are not limited to 160 characters. The message services are quite fast.|
|EDGE||It involves the 3G technology
|The limit of the data is 384kbps.||It may function as a temporary solution for operators unable to get W-CDMA licenses.|
|CDMA||Occurs in the transition of 2G to 3G. It also supports the packet data.||No dependable observation.||The number of subscribers increases and the growth is very fast.|
|W-CDMA (UMTS)||It sets the benchmarking of the royalty rates and processes the licensing arrangements and criteria.||It offers speeds of at least 144kilo bits per second to users in vehicles moving at high speed.
The high limit was 2Mbps initially, and maximum limit reached 10Mbps by 2006, according to the information given by the Designers.
|Dominates outside the United States, good for roaming globally.|
|CDMA2000 1xRTT||The first phase of 3G mobile technology.||Voice and data have maximum limits of 144kilobits per second.||It is likely to be found in Europe.|
|CDMA2000 1xEV-DO||The delivery of data is on a separate channel.||Data limitations is 2.4Mbps.||It is likely to be found in Europe.|
|CDMA2000 1xEV-DV||There is integration of data and voice in the same channel.||Voice and data limitations are up to
|It is likely to be found in Europe.|
The Second Generation
The second-generation mobile systems were developed in the late 1980s. The second generation started using digital multi-access technology that included TDMA and CDMA. The second generation has wireless network that was based on the digital data signaling which operated under the low band. The most common 2G was known as GSM. The GSM systems were first used at 25MHz frequency spectrum, in the band having frequency of 900MHz. FDMA is a standard that allows the network of users to gain access to frequency bands. This kind of allowance leads to elimination of interference of traffic messages that are applied in the splitting of present 25MHz of bandwidth into numerous small 124 carrier frequencies, each of which comprises 200KHz. Each frequency then undergoes subdivision by using TDMA in eight timeslots, which allows almost eight calls to occur simultaneously and at the same frequency. The kind of protocol observed above can allow a large number of users to get information from one radio frequency by the mere allocation of time points to numerous and different voice or data calls.
The TDMA has the capability of breaking down data transmission, which includes dividing phone conversation into small portions and transmitting each portion to a short burst. A time slot is assigned to each portion. The cell has no such capability and therefore can not perform this kind of fragmentation into portions. The GSM has systems that operate at the frequency of 900MHZ and 1.8GHz bands in all parts of the world, with an exception of the United States where they operate at the 1.9GHz. GSM has the roots of its development growing from Europe and CDMA, developed from the United States.
The CDMA utilizes the spread of spectrum technology in order to split the speech into minor portions which are digitalized and encoded to be used for the identification of each call. CDMA has the ability to distinguish numerous and different transmissions carried out at the same time on a single signal that is automatically wireless. The transmissions on that particular signal, affecting the network carrier, provision of interference, and free calls, are carried together. The CDMA technology performs full recognition in regard to the provision of clearer voice, accompanied by less loud background. It offers enhanced security, higher reliability, and little number of terminated calls, as well as greater capacity of networks. The 2G can perfectly handle some of the data capabilities, comprising fax and shortest message services at the low rate of data of 9.4kps. However, this kind of network is not advisable to use for web browsing and applications of multi-media that are connected with networks. The 2G has also led to the development of the 2.5G systems which were much better than the predecessors. The introduction of the 2.5G systems enhanced the data capabilities, eliminating the limitations experienced in the use of 1G and 2G.
The 2.5G systems have led to the addition of connection data capacity to the GSM networks and incorporation of the technologies such as GPRS and WAP. The WAP describes the operation of web pages and passage of the data over the limited bandwidth, including the limitation of the channels and small screens which are used in the modern technologies. The lower layer GPRS, which is next to the WAP, defines the addition of IP support to existing GSM systems. The GPRS help in the provision of the means to aggregate the channels of radio for better data bandwidth. Also, it benefited the additional servers that needed to offload traffic from the existing GSM circuits. GPRS is still applied in the short message services and circuit switched data in order to provide better transmission.
GPRS has very close relation to the GPS. GPS operates at the maximum speed of 171.2kbps, which is achievable with the use of GPRS by applying all time slots at the same rate. This is an improvement compared to the GSM systems, because GPS is almost ten times faster than the services of current circuit switched data of GSM networks (L?hr & Seidel, 2013).
The 2G offers better data services, high level of spectrum efficiency, and has advanced roaming. The 2G was developed to counter the problems experienced by the 1G network.
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The Third Generations
The systems in the 2G are voice centric. The GSM consists of SMS that enables the sending of messages containing up to 160 characters. The same number of SMS can be received and reviewed through the mobile phones. The systems also give support to the data over the voices, but they have a disadvantage in regard to the speed, which is too low. The speed of 9.6-14.4kbps is considered to be painfully low for the users. The 2G networks still dominate the voice-based communications. The rapid growth of the Internet has affected the existence of the wireless and fixed networks.
The development of the 3G started in the late 1980s. The development mainly focused on the application of multimedia, considering it as the initial plan. The multimedia applications include the video conferencing by using the portable phones. The application of the video conferencing required direct connection with the Internet, and that is the possible reason for the discovery of the 3G technology. Due to development in technology, wireless handsets became common, replacing the fixed telephones. The wireless mobile phones require Internet access which users may need regardless of the places they go. The specification of the 3G for the call requires 144kbps. Depending on the movement of users, including automobiles and vehicles such as buses, trains, and cars, 3G requires 384kbps. The same is specified for the pedestrians and for the stationary users whose speed is 2Mbps (Lemil?inen& Kangas, 2004). There is a big difference compared to the 2G bandwidth, where 8 to 13kbps are required for each channel in order to help in the transmission of the speed signals. The users will always demand more, and the need of users to roam worldwide and have full and wireless connections is understandable. The 3G has capability of satisfying the need of the users by providing better platform for the worldwide roaming. Currently, the global roaming is preserved by the GSM, which is the leading system. The platforms of the GSM systems enable users to find extensive coverage in the parts of Asia, Europe, and cities of the United States. The key objective in the development of the 3G was to make roaming universal. The capacity of the wireless connection continues to improve in terms of the expansion of the existing systems, aimed to reach the required limits. The size of the cellular mobile phones is becoming smaller day by day, which helps to enhance their portability. Even though the sizes are decreasing, the permitting frequency is being changed to a specific point. To advance the permitting frequency to all points, it is necessary to develop new technology and bandwidth.
The IMT-2000 represents another name for 3G, which was the initiative with particular intentions of providing access to wireless connection from the global telecommunication facilities through satellite and terrestrial systems. The systems can serve for both mobile and fixed phone users through private and public telephone networks. GSM underwent evolution to transform to IMT-2000. The development of the systems came from Korea, the United States, and Japan. Each system comprises multi radio transmission mechanisms that exist in order to handle the transition of 2G to 3G. The agreement on the frequency bands of IMT-2000 was not easy to reach, and the frequency bands include five radio standards and three widely used frequency bands. The existence of the different radio standards and the widely used bands let the roaming be unified to 3G system. Now the users can be able to roam at the high speed. The mobile phones can operate in the band range of 800 -900, 1.7 to 1.9 GHz and 2.5 to 2.669 GHz bands.
The 3G wireless router operates by requiring the development of the new infrastructure to facilitate its platform. The mobile protocol access is GSM-MAP. The America has infrastructure called IS-41 mobility protocol. These protocols are important because they give definition to the message that passes between home and visitor location registers. During establishing the location of the subscriber and the message, the subscriber needs to move from cell phone to another cell phone. The running of the GSM-MAP and IS-41 infrastructure aims to support IMT-2000. W-CDMA is featured to use a wider band than CDMA. W-CDMA has high transfer rate, thus increasing the system capacity. The communication quality is also high. The W-CDMA makes efficient utilization of the radio spectrum in order to provide maximum data rate of more than 2mbps.
3G systems are IP-centric, and this automatically justifies the all-IP infrastructure. The shifting to the 3G has led to evolution and the practical requirements of re-using the existing infrastructure and taking advantage of the new frequency bands. The availability of the 3G becomes dominant when connected, unlike the 2G and 1G which are not stable. The 3G can not be considered as the single standard, but rather multiple ones that are often described as an umbrella. The development of 3G has made the industries move in the right direction, going toward worldwide converged network. The constant improvement of DSPs allows the multi-mode and multi-band telephones to solve the problems of the diverse and numerous radio interfaces, and frequency bands respectively. The 3G will not have the problem of running the voice and data everywhere in the world.
The Fourth Generations
The objective of the 3G was to lead to the development of the new protocol and technologies in order to enhance the experience of mobile communication. The development of the fourth generation was initiated not to enhance the previous generations, but to accomplish the creation of mechanisms for the new developing levels. The 4G has a framework with the capability of integrating mobile technologies. The mobile technologies include Wi-Fi, IMT-2000, GSM, Bluetooth, GPRS, and wireless fidelity. The approaches of integration are different, resulting in the different versions concerning the future platforms. The main objectives of the 4G are categorized under the following definitions: multi-service platform, ubiquity, and low bit cost.
The multi-service platform is considered important in the current mobile generation because it provides user transition. It also gives telecommunication parameters access to new levels of traffic. In the multi-service platform, the voice loses weight and more users can enjoy more data. The ubiquity means that the new mobile technologies should be available to the users regardless of the time and place that distance the user. For the objectives to be met, there should be standardization of the services and technologies across the world, so that a reference scale can be developed (Chesnais, Wheeler, & Pomeroy, 2009). The services to be used should be available to humans, and the media of communication should be enhanced in order to ensure there is an elaborate connection between human and the parameters of communication. In the current system across the world, the transmitters in the phones can enable voice and data communications for instance, the high bandwidth with efficient Internet access and multi-media transmissions. The transmitters are found in the packages, in the wrist watches, and are used to monitor the vital signals that can enable the establishing of the location of vehicles, the receiving alerts in case of the accidents, and the tracking of the animals as well as the location of plants. Based on the research, it was discovered that millions of mobile users utilize 3G networks. The number of mobile users keeps growing for example, the numbers of Japan have increased from 82.3 million to 500 million.
Low bit cost is an essential element in situations where there is high volumes of data or information that require transmission over the network of the mobile. It is not possible to get the actual price of one bit when there is transmission of high volumes of data for instance, in a case involving video. Videos consist of transmission of high volume of data, and it is impossible to estimate the actual cost of one bit. The low bit cost is the incorporation of the economics that helps to have fair pricing of the bit on the 3G and 4G platforms.
The proposed objectives can be achieved by having a flexible network which would integrate different radio access technologies, so this kind of network should be created. The network must work in the direction of providing high bandwidth, ranging from 50-100mbps for the mobile users. Also, the 1Gbps should be provided to low-end mobile users. An efficient system must be established to provide better delivery of different technological platforms (Kim & Park, 2007). The method of deciding on the wireless access among other methods should also become available.
The 4G framework should enable fair and efficient way of sharing among the users with different requirements. The framework must support the different views of the services among the deployed requirements. The network has a core based on the protocol version 6-Ipv6 and the convergence of the platforms. The network should also be reliable and ensure implementation in regard to the architecture and failed recovery protocols.
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Migration to Fourth Generation
The great intention of 4G is to integrate all the wireless platforms. The best network should enable simultaneous use and the interconnection of many questions. The challenges posed by other generations have forced the migration toward 4G. The application of the 4G networks must develop mobile terminals. The terminals have to adapt to multiple wireless networks, where each of the networks has different protocols and technologies. The auto reconfiguration must be done to ensure that terminals can adapt to various services available. The terminals must be able to determine which networks are available and opt for the specific networks. Terminals are important because their existence determines the nature of roaming between different networks. The roaming must be automatic and transparent to the users. The major issues in terminal mobility are management location and management handoff. Location management handles the tracking of the user mobility and deals with information about the past, current, and future occurrences (Kim, el at2006).
The handoff management is aimed to maintain communication as the terminal crosses the boundaries of the networks. The networks must handle both vertical and horizontal handoffs. Another major problem affecting the networks is security. The standard network should consider the effective security scheme. The 4G network is quite flexible, and its security is rather questionable. The question of security can be considered a threat because the 4G network tends to join many different kinds of technologies thus the effectiveness regarding security can become a challenge.
The cost of the 4G network is not cheap compared to other networks. The mobility rate is high, but the call rates are not flat. For the network to be fair, it should lower the prices in order to attract more users.
The Fifth Generations
The fifth-generation is still in the process of being developed. It can present a complete set of wireless communication, which would be perfect. A wireless communication free from defects would become a real gift to the world. An example of it can be regarded in the worldwide wireless web. 5G represents the next phase of telecommunications beyond the 4G network standards. The new development of network has additional information that consists of fast mobile connectivity that can be utilized at home through automatic activation and smart transportation. The security and e-books are advanced to the level of home automation (Nahon & Sidhom, 2006).
The 5G technologies compose of all types of advanced features that make 5G mobile technology very powerful, so the demand for it will also be high. The use of Bluetooth can be advanced as well. The hook in the networks should be able to increase the connectivity of mobile phones to computers such as laptops. The 5G technology includes video player, Pico nets, large phone memory, audio player, and dialing speed.
Advantages and Disadvantages
Each generation has its own advantages and disadvantages, starting from the first to the fifth generations.
Advantages of the First Generation
The first generation eliminated the old method of communication, replacing it with the modern method of communication. There was increased mobility regarding the improvement of the devices of communication. The devices were reduced in size and became portable.
Disadvantages of the First Generation
It was an analog system and therefore could not be used in various applications. The mobility was too low. The system had problems concerning the cost of running the communication system. The security of the system was not good.
Advantages of Second Generation
There was an improvement in the technology which changed from analog to digital. The mobility was increased to a great extent.
Disadvantages of the Second Generation
The mobility was still low. The system had problems concerning the cost of running the communication system. The security of the system was not good.
Advantages of Third Generation
There was an improvement in the technology that changed from analog to digital. The mobility was increased to a great extent. The user could access more information within the shortest time possible.
Disadvantages of the Third Generation
The system had problems concerning the cost of running the communication system. The security of the system was not good. The generation appeared to be expensive and needed improvement.
Advantages of Fourth and Fifth Generations
There was an improvement in the technology that changed from analog to digital. The mobility was increased to a great extent. The user could access more information within the shortest time possible.
Disadvantages of Fourth and Fifth Generations
The development of the 4G has provided platforms for better access to data, but it is too expensive and requires some advanced equipment for the platforms to operate.
Comparison of All Generations of Mobile Technologies
|First generation||Second generation||Third generation||Fourth generation||Fifth generation|
|1970 to 1980||1990 to 2004||2004 to2010||current||Soon, likely
|Bandwidth of data||2 kilobits per second||64 kilobits per second||2Megabits per second||1 Gigabit per second||Greater than
1Giga bits per second
|Technology||Technology (Analog Cellular)||Technology
EDGE and UMTS
|WWW (the next generation)|
|Digital voice, SMS, Higher
capacity, packetized data
|Integrated high quality audio, video, and data||Constant change of information access, delicate devices||Constant changing of information access,
delicate devices with all the
|Switching||Circuit||Circuit and Packet||Packet
|All Packet s||All Packets|
|Important Network||PSTN||PSTN||Packet N/W||Internet||Internet|
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The development of the mobile communication systems from the first to the fifth generation involves a detailed study of different access schemes. The mobile generations involve five generations. The generations have their year of existence and follow each other in a chronological order, where the current generation is considered to be superior as compared to the previous ones.
The switching of the generations has been shown in the paper, focusing on the characteristics of each generation. The characteristics and properties of the generation have been viewed in regard to security, management, intelligence, traveling, and economic growth. These factors are the parameters that determine the location of the communication system. The gadgets evolution has led to the changes of the features and the requirements of the new generations.
The evolution of mobile communication systems took a lot of stages, which are described as the generations. Each generation has personal characteristics and features. The generations were majorly on the transition from analog communication systems to digital communication systems. The main aim of the evolution is to improve the quality of communication and enhance the mobility of the gadgets used in the passing of information. The several steps involved in the mobile communication system are based on the manner of supporting the required infrastructure in order to accommodate the new generation of networks. The mobility of the network is very important, but its objectives can not be reached yet. The improvements should be made by increasing the demand for bandwidth at lower costs. The success of mobile communication has been growing with the development of each new generation.