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Midterm Exam for Psychology of Women

Theoretical Framework

Women psychology gives an organizational ground for all women and men from different origins interested in research and teaching in the psychology of women. The study recognizes a multiplicity of women’s experiences which comes from a range of factors, including culture, ethnicity, socioeconomic status, language, sexual orientation, and age. The division supports feminist research, education, theories, and practice toward improving and understanding the lives of women and girl children in their diversities. It encourages scholars to find the social construction of gender relations across multicultural contexts. Psychology of women seeks to empower women in the community in terms of national and global leadership. Different schools of thought evaluating human nature and behavioral patterns have given rise to different theoretical perspectives of psychology. Each of the perspectives tries to examine the complex human mind in different ways. Theories use different techniques of testing of the human brain and mind to reveal interesting truth details about the diversity of human personalities.

The biological theory argues that men and women are different in the way they were created. The theory suggests that the division of labor started a long time ago and existed in different cultures. Women have believed to have weak skeletons, which made them take light jobs in the community. This framework argues that gender roles varied in early humans, and it was not an inborn character but learned. A female child is given birth in the same way as a male child but later develops the female perception because of how life treats the two genders. Biological change of a girl child makes a woman behave in a different way and develop the female attitude towards life. Social theories arise mainly from the various stereotypes of gender roles, which makes males and females think they are different. Men have always been assigned muscular roles, and this has made women believe that they are not as strong as men. Sociology explains that women have not been involved in political and social developments because men have made them believe and accept the fact that they cannot.

Cordelia Fine argued that there is no perfect current scientific evidence for natural or normal biological distinctions between women’s and men’s minds. It is cultural and societal beliefs which lead to the common perception of sex differences. She states that many psychological studies of gender disparities are subjected to errors and are controversial. It is observed that results received from smaller-scale studies are not done again in larger studies. It is also possible that the self-report schedules and questionnaires may be vulnerable to bias. The cognitive theory was concerned with testing the IQ of male and female students investigating how they reason, their emotions, aggression, and the brain structure. All this shows no defined difference, and the researchers argue there is no good difference in how the brain functions. They blame the environmental surroundings which may dictate the way of thinking. This theory argues that it is the roles given to children growing up which makes them think they are the superior or weaker gender. The social influence on women makes them think they are not the same as men.

Distinction Between Sex and Gender

Sex is referred to as the biological difference between males and females on the basis of their reproductive organs and their functions. Gender refers to the socially constructed roles, identities, responsibilities, and expectations assigned to women and men. It differs with the basic or primary physiological and biological differences between females and males, which are referred to as secondary sex features. Gender roles have differed across cultures and communities over a long time. For many people, gender is always considered in binary or dual words terms regarding woman and man or masculine and feminine. Anticipations of men and women are restricted through these duals and are conveyed through gender role stereotyping. These categories limit proper sex behavior to a variety of rigid functions, which are allocated to men and women depending on their gender. These roles and expectations are delicate and fixed. There is diversity in the way individuals express their gender which does not correspond to these pigeonholes. Not all men and women fit the stereotypical expectations of femininity or qualities associated with masculinity. It is important to rethink the sex and gender issue to make people understand what it means. A gender and sex sensitive approaches are not about competition between individual men and women to gain equal access to services and limited resources. The society has to recognize that we live in a system that creates competition among women and men. It is also important to understand that men are socialized to maintain the system through aggression and domination.

Normal and Abnormal in Sexuality and Sexual Desire

Human beings from different races will engage in sexual relation with an aim to multiply and enjoy. The urge to have sex or make love is a psychological response that takes place when in sexual activity. Sexual desire begins from the brain to the whole body tissues which send excitement for a person to have sex. Male and human psychology in relation to sex differs in how each man is aroused to have sex. Females have longer excitement starting from minutes to some hours which is characterized by many body changes. Sexual desire is an influence that is psychological both in men and women. Whenever the mind is tuned to have sexual activity, any human being acts abnormally, but this is the natural way of human nature.

The urge to have sexual relation reduces as people get older. Old women and women would have little desire for sex maybe because of the responsibilities of the family that divert sexual desire. When human beings have problems, their psychology is affected, thus some divert this desire. The sexual act is sweet when both woman and man reach orgasm. For a man, orgasm is likely to happen, but for females, this physical process has also a psychological side. Human behaviors towards sexuality and sexual desire make him or her look abnormal, but this is a natural psychological feeling which one cannot hide.

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