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The history of Japanese migration to Hawaii has always been shrouded in folktales and myths. According to the Japanese, the first settlement arrived in the United States in the early 19th century. It was composed of a bunch of sailors whose ship drowned during a storm. The ship was known as Inawaka-Maru, which was claimed to be transporting goods back to their homeport before it was blown away by strong winds towards the Pacific Ocean (Ichise). The survivors are said to have lived and established themselves in the Hawaii Islands in the United States. The survivors were soon rescued and taken back to Japan, with the majority of them dying along the way. The first contact between the two states was later to grow and blossom into a different kind of relationship.

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Immigration of the Japanese to Hawaii Islands began long before Hawaii was considered to be part of the United States. The majority of Japanese citizens moving to the area came to work on large sugar plantations that had over time become an important source of employment across Hawaii (“Hawaii: Life in a Plant”). Additionally, numerous owners of the plantation wanted a cheap source of labor which was readily available. It was the migration in question witnessed in the 1880s that resulted in an increase in the number of Japanese internationals that stayed in Hawaii (Ichise). The majority of Japanese emigrated from their country in search of a better life. At the time of immigration, Hawaii was governed as a single state, free and away from the United States. It had very low tax rates as compared to other areas. It greatly influenced the migration patterns of the Japanese people to Hawaii. Moreover, their government ad good relations with Hawaii and therefore served to encourage its populace to move to such areas (Ichise). The majority of Japanese exiles were hired to work for a period of about three years or more. Hence, long contracts helped them settle in a number of regions in Hawaii. The jobs in the plantation fields were many laborers were required. Therefore, there was a continued migration process of the Japanese into Hawaii. The introduction of the Chinese Exclusion Act in the United States also served to drive more Japanese to Hawaii. They were worried that if their numbers increased in the United States, there was a probability that legislative action would b taken against them (Ichise). Most of the farmers in the South of Japan had suffered numerous losses in the previous years, and they wanted something that could get them better jobs. They opted for moving to Hawaii, where the salary was much higher in comparison with the respective sector wage in Japan. Although life on the plantations was quite difficult, most of them opted to remain in Hawaii while the remainder opted to go back to their home country.

Similarly, to the other communities that came looking for employment in areas close or in the United States, the Japanese faced similar cases of discrimination and segregation. Hence, it was more likely to find them localized in one area or part of Hawaii (Ogawa and Grant). Most of them lived a substandard kind of life without luxuries. Restaurants and other places were specifically classified basing on ethnic groups. Since the bulk of the people living in the area were white, most of the fancy belonged to their ethnic community, and people of a different race were never allowed to set foot in such a place (Ichise). Essentially, this was the kind of place that the other communities lived. Most of the Japanese coming to these areas had low educational standards and could not demand better jobs because society would not have provided them with such kinds of jobs. The only notable thing is that they remained fought for their rights, particularly for the initiatives related to the formation of labor unions with the view to address their growing needs in the plantation.

The first immigrants were referred to as the Issei (Yamashita 130). The group stood behind, despite the varied economic challenges they faced as a minority group in a foreign nation-state. It was known for the attempts of establishing unions that would cater to their needs in the society. The Nisei are believed to be descendants of Issei and future generations. (Yamashita 130). The Nisei were born and bred in Hawaii. Later on, the Nisei were granted American citizenship thanks to an important role they played in the Second World War. The bulk of people who currently live in Hawaii while being of a Japanese origin, trace their roots back to the Nisei and Issei.

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Today, the Japanese population is considered to be the third-highest minority in Hawaii after the whites and Filipino. In 2010, a census revealed that the number of Japanese individuals in the area was 185,502 (Japanese Population by County). The censuses also showed that the Japanese had distributed differently in different regions of Hawaii. Their highest concentration can be found in the city and county of Honolulu. The others were spread in other areas such as Hawaii County, Maui County, and Kauai County with the last mentioned county having the smallest number of people. Japanese American believed to be descendants of the Nikkei are found in different parts of the United States (“Asian Population Demographics”). However, the major part of the population still resides in Honolulu, Hawaii. The share of Japanese Americans has been increasing in Hawaii in the 21st century even after immigration that characterized their coming ended years ago. Close to 90% of all the Japanese Americans live in Hawaii with the remaining population being distributed in other areas such as California, Washington, Oregon and New York (“Asian Population Demographics “).

The migration of Japanese to the United States, namely the Hawaii in this case, resulted in various social, cultural and economic changes. When a community emigrates to another state, its members transfer all their practices and traditions to the destination country. Additionally, maintain a relationship with their home country, since some of their family members remain in Japan (Ogawa and Grant). As the time passes, the external influence of other cultures slowly sets in making some of their socio-economic cultures to change. External influence either erodes certain cultures or brings forth slight modifications.

The Japanese living in Hawaii in the 19th and 20th centuries from being immigrants to the 21st century, when they are recognized fully as United States citizens. It means that there has been a gradual change in most of the cultures they practiced as well their economic status. Today, some Japanese citizens would like to come to the United States, stay for some period and become naturalized (Ogawa and Grant). It is more frequent to see foreigners living in a location where they share ethnic identities with other people. Naturally, it is more likely for the foreign citizens to live close to other people in Hawaii because they share an identity of origin.

The current paper explains the differences in immigration of Japanese in Hawaii in the 19th and 20th centuries and compares the reasons as to why some of them still come to America in the 21st century. In analyzing the different reasons, it is vital to understand why the current population that migrated in the earlier centuries chooses to remain in the United States even after most of them opted to go back to their country (Ogawa and Grant). Before it is hypothesized that the main reason to why the majority of them choose to remain in Hawaii and not in any other location in the United States were poorly economic reasons it is useful to consider all other factors before arriving at a conclusion. The paper uses IPUMS to show differences in several certain activities of the Japanese immigrants in the early 19th and mid 19th century. It covers notions such as immigration backgrounds, ages, sexes, jobs, as well as how they influence the economic activity of Hawaii.

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Literature Review

Immigration Background

Ichise maintains that immigrants first arrived in Hawaii in the year 1880. It was after a boat set out in Japan heading towards Hawaii. The majority of boat passengers were laborers going to work on the sugar plantations. According to Osiche, the total number of people who first immigrated to the area was 150. IPUMS data collected in 1880, reveals that Japanese formed a substantial part of the population in the United States, though they were regarded as a minority community (Ruggles et al.). During the period, the Japanese were majorly located in Middle Atlantic region, South Atlantic region and Pacific Division. The largest population of Japanese was found in the Pacific Division. Osiche notes that the population of the Japanese immigrants in the United States changed between the years 1886 to 1911. According to Osiche, more than 400,000 Japanese individuals left Japan to moving to the United States. Over 28,000 immigrants settled in Hawaii. Most of the individuals claimed that the Hawaii had better-working policies as compared to mainland USA, which had treated them quite differently. They stated that they had learnt important lessons from the Chinese Immigrants, who fell victims of the Exclusion Acts enforced by the United States government. The second reason as to why most of them migrated to the United States was to seek for better economic opportunities for their families, which were still located in Japan. By 1880, the majority of the lands present in the United States and Hawaii were owned by the white. The percentage stood at 88.3% (Ruggles et al.). They were closely followed by the Negros. The percentage of Japanese residents was ineligible due to the fact that the had just settled in Hawaii. Their numbers could not be compared to those of the other populations. Correspondingly, they were most likely to act as laborers in other people’s farm. Oside (2015) also notes that the Japanese went through periods of discrimination as was the norm during the time, with most of them being detained after the attack on Pearl Harbor.

Ogawa and Grant describe the saga revolving the Japanese Americans in Hawaii. Ogawa and Grant state that the movement of people from Hawaii is still shrouded in mystery. Ogawa and Grant define different features of the Japanese that may help explain their presence in the Hawaii. Some of them include the Japanese game of Konane, Kahili, which refers to a form of royalty among the different ancient people. The scholars go even go further to state that it might have been the Japanese who introduced some of the crops commonly noted in Hawaii. Ogawa and Grant agree with the finding of IPUMS that the population of the immigrants in 1880 was about a hundred and fifty individuals (Ruggles et al.). Ogawa and Grant provide various reasons as to why most of the immigrants came to Hawaii in the earlier years. Some of them were displaced samurai warriors while others were slum dwellers. Similar to the other minority communities that have been mentioned, they were treated disrespectfully until the year of 1885, when legislation was put in place so as to ensure that they did not suffer at the hands of their employers. Ogawa and Grant provide information on how the Issei came to exist in Hawaii. By 1924, they had flocked the area. In the latter years, their population tripled in the area. Ogawa and Grant (2009) also claim that the population increased by an estimator of 40%.

The years 1900 to 1920 were considered to the peak immigration period among the Japanese native moving to Hawaii. The United States made Hawaii one of its states in 1900. Some of the Japanese residents moved to California, while the remaining populations chose to stay in Hawaii. The population increase can be attributed to better-working conditions that were being secured by the Government of the United States. Soon, most of Japanese that settled in the area and even practiced their beliefs. According to Bailey, some of the Japanese special celebrations were held in the town effectively making it their home a good example is the 50th anniversary of the state of Hawaii which is celebrated by all people in the region. The Japanese are solely responsible for fighting for their rights during the timeframe in question. Still, it is worth noting that the Japanese population after the Second World War was lowered after the perceived feelings that the migrant were responsible for planning the attacks on Pearl Harbor. It is more likely that people were looking for a number of for better opportunities similar to the groups that had initially arrived in the earlier reasons. Hence, it is considered that economic factors largely determined the Japanese migration to Hawaii. During the above-indicated timeframe, the share of Japanese people substantially decreased with the majority of them opting to go back to their homes. The graph below shows the immigration statistics of the Japanese in Hawaii.

Age and Gender

According to Onazawa, the majority of the Japanese immigrants migrating to Hawaii were aged between 14 to 35 years old. Most of them were males, but were not the first born from their families. The Japanese society expected that their first-born sons are to remain at home in order to support their fathers. Firstborn children were also supposed to inherit most of their properties after their father passed on. Therefore, it was more likely that most of the immigrants coming in the early 19th century were never first born. In general, they had nothing to inherit and their societal backgrounds never provided them with any other goodies. In the initial stages, all sexes were allowed into the United States. However, as the population of Japanese individuals grew in the country, the United States placed several restrictions. It culminated in banning of Japanese Women immigrants in their country. Therefore, most of the emigrants who came to Japan in the early years had mostly been men.

In the Mid 19th century, some of the limitations imposed on women were removed after what they termed as a Gentleman’s Agreement, allowed them to work in America (Onazawa 115). It is due to these rates their population spiked to reach the current heights. Much of these people settled in Hawaii and were classified as the Issei. Later on, they laid the foundation for the second generation. Based on the data present in IPUMS 1910, where a sample population of 1% was utilized, Japanese children were absent in the data collected (Ruggles et al.). Generally speaking, they aged around 23 years, suggesting that the initial population that settled in founded the main ages during this period. The male population in 1910 reached 118,619, while the female population amounted to 33,782 (Ruggles et al.). IPUMS data 1850-2013 of shows that the share of males of Japanese origin is 6,928,950 while that of females is 8,558,211 (Ruggles et al.).

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Educational Levels

According to Nitaya, the Japanese immigrants to Hawaii in the early 19th century had basic sets of formal education provided to them in their country. Such form of education was stated as being compulsory and was majorly composed of eight years. Most of the immigrants had therefore received some formal education before they moved to areas around the United States. At the same time, in the United States, these parties never received any education during the start of the 20th century. Data from IPUMS taken in the year 1900 revealed that the majority population of people who were in school were white and other minority communities such as the Black, American Indians, and Chinese (Ruggles et al.). The Japanese were among the list number of people who went to school during this period. Most of them placed an emphasis on working to earn a better living. Likewise, discriminative tendencies exhibited by different parts of the white community meant that most of the Japanese individuals never had the same rights as the other groups in society. By 1910, out of the 138, 365 Japanese children, only 14,036 were in school (Ruggles et al.). They represented 0.1% of the total population of children who had were going to school. The white ethnic community still dominated education and other sectors though today the children of the Issei and Nisei go to school.

Influence on Hawaii Economy

According to Suzuki, the economic achievement of the Japanese people in Hawaii is outstanding. Initially, they settled in the country as immigrants, usually working as part of the unskilled labor. The bulk of them worked in the construction and agriculture sector. Close to 90% of the Japanese were working as part of the unskilled labor force in the year 1900. The Japanese had the lowest occupational score compared to the other races present in Hawaii. According to IPUMS data, the Japanese stood as the last group, according to the Duncan Socioeconomic Index (Ruggles et al.). By 1940, 18% of the Japanese immigrants were classified as being managers, proprietors, and developers (Ruggles et al.). Their occupational score surpassed all the other minority communities and was the same as that of the white majority, which had dominated the country for a long time. The transformation of Japanese people occurred after some period. Initially, they were paid fewer amounts as compared to other residents. A bulk of them were barred by the new laws, formulated by the United States government. They were never supposed to buy or lease any form of land. Climbing the tenant ladder was also more difficult for members of this community. The Japanese in Hawaii were viewed as moderate minorities and were not discriminated in the same way as other communities. The dissimilarity between the two periods improved the economic activity of Hawaii. The Japanese immigrants who settled in Hawaii and built their families in the area commonly practiced their traditions and cultures. They managed to build their Buddhist and Christian churches establishing the area as the major tourist’s sites for individuals who came to Hawaii.

Based on the data provided by IPUMS, in three different periods, it can be concluded that the economic characteristics of the Japanese population varied significantly (Ruggles et al.). If results from three different periods were compared, the true picture of the economic activities of the Japanese community in Hawaii is brought into focus. Economic date from IPUMS in the year 1910 reveals that close to 0.1% of the Japanese community were able to pay their mortgage (Ruggles et al.). The remaining population lived in crowded areas in the nearby places around Hawaii where they were charged rent. Between 1850 and 2013, the respective number increased by 0.3%. A similar figure represents the number of Japanese immigrants who now own a farm in Hawaii. The two discrepancies highlight the major economic changes that took place from the time the Japanese came in as immigrants to the time they became naturalized as American citizens.

Research Design

The research encompassed both qualitative and quantitative researches. Qualitative data collection was collected through the use of interviews, while quantitative data collection was majorly collected through the use of questionnaires and by searching for information in online platforms. An example is the IPUMS. The online site contains information collected over the years by use of questionnaires. It collects data via the use of different samples in different years. Two experts will be used to provide sufficient information regarding the historical cultures of the Japanese people in Hawaii.

The study was conducted in Hawaii. People of Japanese descendants were the major participants who were required to fill in the questionnaire as well as being part of the interview. The participants in the questionnaire section and interviews will be signed on a volunatry basis with the local government’s assistance. From the total amount of people willing to participate in the study, the number will be scaled down to basing on the desired characteristics. These will include individuals who have adequate knowledge related to the migration of Japanese to Hawaii and relative age groups. The study focuses on people aging thirty years and above. The questionnaire will contain ten questions and will target several key areas that relate to Japanese immigration. Personal information related to the gender of different subjects under investigation. It will include their sex, education level, economic activity as well as their migration status. The questionnaires were distributed randomly to a specified number of participants to eliminate or reduce instances of bias of information. Members of the same family will be required to fill the questionnaire regarding the above mentioned. The total number of questionnaires used in the above process will be 50 and was sent by mail. Emphasis will be placed on having a high response rate.

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21 Japanese living in Hawaii for the past ten years will be interviewed. They will be divided into three important classes, depending on their age limits. The first group will be aged around 30, with second aged 50, while the last group aged 70 years and above. It means that there will be a total of seven different Japanese individuals with either sex making more than half of the sample selected per group. The interviews will be conducted individually. They will seek to provide more information relating to the immigration of the Japanese to Hawaii, the educational levels of the participants as well as the impact they have made in Hawaii after the arrival. They will also be asked questions associated with their nationality, whether they have family members leaving in Japan. Likewise, they will be asked why they preferred staying in the United States or whether they would like to return to the country of origin. The research will also identify the major reasons as to why they stayed behind in Hawaii and not in the other locations.

Two historical experts, preferably professors, who have specialized in Japanese immigration to America, will give out similar information as the interviewed individuals. Their emphasis will dwell on the history of immigration of the Japanese people in the late 19th century and early 20 century to date. IPUMS will then be used to collect all the necessary secondary relevant from the above topic by considering data in its samples from 1880, 1910, 1920 as well as between 1850 – 2013 (Ruggles et al.). The study will be submitted to an ethical committee before the start of the project, and all ethical standards will be adhered to during the whole process. The obtained information is to be analyzed online via IPUMS while qualitative data will be noted down and compared to the data collected via the online platform.



The results revealed that Japanese migration started in early 1880 and was chiefly driven by economic factors. The participants remarked that there existed folktales stating that earlier exiles might have arrived in Hawaii as early as in the 1860s but their numbers were smaller. Most of those who are claimed to have arrived in the 1860s were sailors and were not in any way looking for business ventures. The first major contingent that arrived in the United States in the year 1880 was majorly casual laborers looking for employment opportunities in Hawaii. It is claimed that the two states shared cordial relationships due to their proximity levels. The majority of migrants from Japan possessed a number of critical features. First, they were manual laborers and most of them were aged between 14 to 35 years of age. Most of Japanese emigrants chose US west coast as a place of final residence, mostly in Hawaii. Census data collected in IPUMS in 1880 using 10% of the sample indicated that the Japanese population was the smallest and was located in the Pacific Division (Ruggles et al.). Hawaii is among numerous Pacific Ocean islands. Data from IPUMS also indicates that they were paid lower wages as compared to the other minority communities such as the Chinese and, therefore, their economic condition were worse.

The information collected from the experts in Japanese immigration classified their movement into four major sections claiming various factors characterized the movement. An expert analysis reveals that the Japanese peoples’ interests in the United States started during the Gold Rush. Most Chinese individuals were taken in the first shipped, but were later restricted in the coming years, since their transportation was costly yet they were unskilled and due to their constant strikes. The Japanese were never allowed to immigrate in the early centuries due to restrictions by the government. Correspondingly, there was a growing population of unemployed individuals. It was the reason why the first immigrants were allowed to move out of Japan to other areas to search for employment. Since the country had cordial relationships with the ruler of the Hawaii they were allowed to stay and work in the sugar plantations. Experts explain the immigration phase in terms of four periods. The first between 1880 and 1908 where the influx of the first population of the immigrants settled in Hawaii were noted. This group was referred to as Issei the second period was between 1908 and 1941 and was classified as the Nisei. The third period was between 1942 and 1945 during the Second World War and the last one – between 1945 to 1970 in which a new culture known as Sansei was born. All of these groups coming in the early 19th and 20th century are claimed to have different purposed in the society.

The first phase is said to have been accompanied by many issues relating to racial and ethnic discrimination by other groups. An Anti-Asian Exclusion group, which was formed in the West Coast during the period in order to ensure that Japanese migration decreased. These anti-Japanese sentiments did not allow them hold any piece of land during this period. They also limited marriage of the Japanese with the white women. The statistics from IPUMS shows, that by 1910, the population of Japanese renting homes was increasing, while those paying mortgages was ineligible because it was too small to have any significant effect (Ruggles et al.). Their children were forbidden to attend school. It was during this period that the Japanese put pressure on the United States government to remove such discriminative policies. After the Gentleman’s Agreement in 1908, the United States agreed with Japan to only send the wives and children of the immigrants in their country, but not new immigrants. It has whatsparked another increase in population. This time, it was not about labor, but rather bringing on family board members of people living in Hawaii. IPUMS data reveals that the population of people of Japanese descent in Hawaii by 1910 became 152,000 (Ruggles et al.). The number was even higher as compared to that of the Chinese. The Data collected in 1910 based on a 1% sample and had dissimilarities with the data collected in 1920 as shown below (Ruggles et al.). The total number of people coming male and females stood at 118,619 and 33,782 (Ruggles et al.).

The timeframe between 1920 and 1942 saw a boost in Japanese migration to the United States. They were fighting for their rights as rightful American citizens because a number of them had been born and brought up in Hawaii. The Nisei were the once on the forefront of fighting for the rights to own land like all other US residents. Today, the Japanese population makes a huge chunk of people living in Hawaii. They represented the third largest community in the area after the majority of the white and black Americans, as shown by data obtained via IPUMS 1853 -2014 (Ruggles et al.). Unlike in the earlier times, they have equal rights as all the other populations in the country.

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Age, Gender and Educational Levels

Data collected from IPUMS and other sources indicate that a major part of the immigrants who moved to Hawaii during the early years was aged between 14-35. Many received education through their compulsory elementary system that was in place for many years. Young people who arrived during the first period were predominantly male and came to work mostly as laborers. The number of female individuals who came to the area was less but worked as domestic servants for the white majority. After the Gentlemen’s Agreement in the subsequent years, the volume of the male and female individuals in Hawaii increased. Additionally, the education status of various populations increased after some of the discriminative laws that had been existent for many years were abolished. The number of people receiving an education was boosted greatly compared to the other years. After the Nisei had fully been recognized as citizens of the United States, they had the same access to education as other citizen and fully maximized such an opportunity. The education levels of the Japanese in Hawaii have greatly improved compared to the time they were coming in as immigrants. Numerous participants provided data in questionnaires and interviews stated that the conditions in the United States were much better as compared to the time they were in Japan. Furthermore, both genders have been provided with equal opportunities compared to when the first immigrants were arriving in 1880.

Influence on the Economy

The first Japanese immigrants were regarded as laborers. They were paid lower amounts of money compared to the other existing minority communities such as the Chinese. Essentially, it decreased their economic impact on the economy of Hawaii, since they were ranked last among all the other groups. The number of Japanese owing to any house and paying for a mortgage was quite low and illegible because their income was low. They could not purchase land due to the regulations imposed by the United States. It was done so because of fear from the government side that constant waves of Japanese immigration would ultimately result in more land ending up in Japanese ownership. Most of the economic laws that had been in place in the early times the immigrants were arriving aimed at denying them equal opportunities compared to the majority community. After restrictive laws had been abolished in the later years,

the Japanese became one of the most effective business leaders in the entire country and more socially in certain regions such as Hawaii. Unlike previously, when Japanese immigrants occupied unskilled job positions, with time they switched to running their own businesses. A number of reasons why the economic situation of the Japanese immigrants had changed by 1940 were given, compared to the other communities present in the country at this time. The feeling across the board was that they were model minorities as compared to the other minority groups present in the country. It is one reason why the absolute laws that limited most of their rights were improved. Once such barriers had been removed, they had access to the economy of the United States which they completely used it to their benefit.

The Japanese population in Hawaii adapted quite fast and managed to understand how the economy of the United States was run. They followed the same behavior that had been shown by Jewish descendants, who assimilated the economic conditions present in the United States and completely utilized it to their advantage. After the barriers had been lifted, many migrants became businessmen. It means that they were able to utilize fully the opportunities that existed in the American market. The expert’s opinion indicates that many people who came from Asian communities had an urge to engage in business activities because of the business foundation they possessed, as well as the educational knowledge they, had received from their home country. Education quality in the Japanese system represents a society which was rapidly modernizing and growing economically. Therefore, the Japanese were merely transferring their practices and traditions to the new region. By doing so, they managed to achieve economic prosperity that trickled down to the economy of Hawaii. Japanese influence had a profound positive economic impact on Hawaii in general.

The settling down of the Japanese in Hawaii and establishing their cultures also significantly grew the Hawaiian economy. The Japanese developed most of their artifacts in this region as well as established their churches and other important religious features that serve to increase the number of tourists visiting the region. The information below relates to the economic activity of the Japanese in Hawaii from the time they arrived as immigrants.

The total land has been utilized because it is a variable that exists in all of the datasets provided. It is worth to mention the similarity in percentage between tracts of land available to the white community and the Japanese.

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The research set out to determine how immigration of Japanese people to Hawaii inspired economic growth between the late 19th century to the 20th century. A few important aspects that play a role in the process included age, education level, and gender of individuals. Several important discrepancies are noted between the time the immigrants arrived in Hawaii to the time they become full citizens of the United States. As immigrants, they were paid low wages, had low education levels, and ranked lasted when compared to other communities. In the coming years, the Nisei, a second generation of the immigrants established themselves economically and were better educated in comparison with the original immigrant population, which arrived in Japan in the early 19th century. There are a couple of economic causes why some Japanese were running from their country to come to Hawaii. The first one included the lack of employment opportunities and heavy taxes imposed by the country. The Hawaiian government also gave a lot of incentives for individuals to continue working in Hawaii, boosting the migration flow. Ultimately, the growth of the Hawaiian economy can partly be explained by the influence of immigrants who arrived in the area about a century ago. The dissimilarities between most of the activities present in the late 18th century and 19th century shaped the economy of Hawaii.

Admittedly, the study under review has some limitations. IPMUS data for different states such as Hawaii is only present after the year of 1950. Therefore, the data that utilized for the period of 1900 and 1910 was for the entire Japanese population. It was because most of the Japanese settled in Hawaii in large numbers before moving to any part. Correspondingly, it was assumed that the population in 1900 and 1910 was representative of the Japanese presence in Hawaii.

Discount applied successfully