The proposed research aims to discuss the importance of the provision of information on the risks of heart diseases for their prevention. The contemporary researches show the effectiveness of primary prevention techniques in the decrease of HD level. At the same time, insufficient attention has been paid to the question of whether proper education serves as a stimulus to the development and maintenance of a healthy lifestyle, which is supposed to limit the occurrence of problems with the heart. The research shall be performed in the form of a survey, which will include an online survey targeting participants aged 18-50 years and a live survey with participants 50-60 years of age. Such an approach to the survey performance will allow the researcher to achieve the best results at low costs. The usage of Google Forms for the collection of survey data will help to accumulate the required information for a short period of time. The required sample for the research will include age, sex, current attitude to smoking, adherence to the right diet, predisposition to an active lifestyle, and characteristics of the current or potential HD.
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The usage of primary interventions became an important method of cardiovascular diseases treatment. The reason for such tendency is the awareness about the importance of preventive treatment of heart diseases (HD). Since the HD are considered to be one of the most serious mortality factors in the contemporary world (Shroufi et al., 2013), the search for more effective ways to prevent such diseases becomes particularly important. In this way, one of the most useful tools to prevent HD is the rise in public awareness about the risk factors for heart problems. According to the latest researches, healthy lifestyle significantly contributes to the prevention of heart diseases (Ali, Shonk, & El-Sayed, 2013, p. 2). Therefore, it is necessary to pay special attention to the relationship between the awareness of the population about the risks and the likelihood of HD.
According to the main theme of the research, the prevention picot question is: In adult patients over 18 years old, including males and females (P), how does the provision of information on risk factors for heart disease (I) influences the incidence of such conditions (O) in comparison with the absence of such knowledge (C) during five years (T)?
Statement of the Problem
The usage of the methods of primary intervention plays an important role in the treatment of heart diseases. A considerable number of studies in this sphere highlighted the significance of primary interventions for the elimination of conditions that lead to the occurrence of heart problems (Shroufi et al., 2013). At the same time, inadequate attention had been paid to the comparison between the effect of possession and absence of knowledge about the HD risks for the patients. The contemporary researches discussed the preventive measures that can be used to decrease the possibility of the HD occurrence (Shroufi et al., 2013). The patients’ knowledge about the risk factors of HD was estimated as the important preventive tool. Nevertheless, most of the scholars did not consider the importance of the possession or absence of such knowledge for different age groups. This research will be focused on the quantitative evaluation of the positive effect that is caused by the acquisition of knowledge about HD risks. In comparison to earlier studies, the described work will help to define the usefulness of disseminating such knowledge in society on the basis of the results obtained in the case of the absence of such practice.
At the same time, the limitation of previous researches that discussed primary prevention tools for HD was that they considered the sample that included the participants of older age groups, starting from the age of 40 (Ali, Shonk & El-Sayed, 2013). The evaluation of the effectiveness of preventive measures should also include the discussion of their usefulness for younger groups. Thus, the presented research will be focused on the participants starting from the age of 18.
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Purpose of the Study
The purpose of the study is to evaluate the potential contribution of specific educational programs for the prevention of heart diseases. It will evaluate the positive result of educational programs, while providing information on the effects of their absence. The study will also include the assessment of educational programs’ importance for different age groups, starting from the age of 18. Though it seems to be that the age group of 18-40 years does not potentially experience any symptoms of cardiovascular diseases, the idea of primary interventions is to create conditions for the prevention of health issues occurrence. In a situation when most diseases are becoming younger, the timely notification of risks can serve as a solution.
According to the earlier described research picot question, the main hypotheses that require assessment are:
1. There is a negative correlation between the level of patients’ knowledge about the risks of HD and the likelihood of its occurrence;
2. The possession of knowledge on the risks of heart diseases can encourage the development of healthy lifestyle among the patients;
3. The implementation of educational programs will allow one to achieve better results with regard to HD prevention, as opposed to the situation when such program is absent;
4. The acquisition of the necessary knowledge at the earlier age contributes to a more rapid decline in the HD incidents rate.
Definition of Terms
Healthy lifestyle is the patient’s lifestyle that reduces the likelihood of heart disease among the patients;
Primary prevention is defined as the actions that are supposed to prevent disease before it occurs;
The healthy lifestyle is one of the main methods of primary prevention of HD. It is related to the development of patients’ habits that limit the possibility of the occurrence and development of heart issues. With regard to the HD, the healthy lifestyle presupposes limiting alcohol and smoking consumption, establishing an appropriate diet, and maintaining active lifestyle.
Patients’ Education and Lifestyle Behavior
The main target of educating patients on the risks that can cause heart issues is the development of healthy lifestyle behavior that will prevent factors that can cause the existence of HD. Among the factors that lead to problems with the heart, the most important are the patient’s obesity, smoking, and high blood pressure (Razavi et al., 2014). In this case, the effective educational program should encourage patients to quit smoking, develop more healthy diet (Spitzmiller, 2014, p. 52), and become engaged in an active lifestyle. The latest researches show that the involvement in the healthy lifestyle is the main method of primary prevention of heart diseases. The results of the logistic regression analysis show that the healthy lifestyle has a negative correlation with the risk of HD among the people older than 40 years (Ali, Shonk & El-Sayed, 2013, p. 8). The same results have been reached during the implementation of several primary prevention programs relating to HD in the US (Ferdinand et al., 2012). In these conditions, it is necessary to define whether the provision of information on risk factors for heart diseases can be a significant stimulus to the implementation of a healthy lifestyle.
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The proposed research will be performed in the form of a survey. The survey will help a researcher to evaluate the person’s awareness about the existing risks of heart diseases, understand the potential and existing heart issues that the respondent faces now or can face in the future, and assess the desire of the participant to reach healthy lifestyle after the achievement of the necessary education. Such approach to the formation of the survey will allow the researcher to find the solution to all of the earlier presented hypotheses. The creation of the questions in the survey will correspond to the main questions posed within the framework of the hypotheses of the study. The logistic regression tool will be used to evaluate the level of correlation between the key indicators of the research. The collection of data for the evaluation will be performed through the Internet, namely by answering survey questions at home or at their workplaces. The theoretical model of the study is supposed to provide the results that will confirm all the hypotheses.
The population for the survey will include the participants of different sexes and age groups. To provide the adequacy of the research, it will be necessary to guarantee the equal study of different age groups. The participants will be divided into four groups according to their age, namely 18-30, 30-40, 40-50, and 50-60 years. As can be seen, the division of participants correlates with the risk of HD for each age group. The participants of the first group will be students. With regard to the second group, it will include office workers and sportsmen with an active lifestyle. Moreover, the third group will comprise the same participants as the second one. The difference in age will help to evaluate the long-term changes in the status of potential patients. Furthermore, the last group will include the visitors of the church in the US. The specific characteristic of this group is that the collection of data will be performed in person, not via the Internet. As can be seen from the description of the sampling, the chosen sampling method is stratified sampling. The characteristic of the selection of the stratum is the age. The features of the sample will include age, sex, current attitude to smoking, adherence to the right diet, predisposition to an active lifestyle, and the characteristics of the current or potential HD.
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1. Web-based Surveys
The advantages of such method of the survey include low costs of the survey, considerably short period of time for the performance of the survey, low costs of data processing due to the availability of electronic tools, simultaneous display of survey results, and easy cooperation with the participants. It will be useful for the proposed research due to the opportunity to cover a considerable number of participants in a short period of time.
2. Group Administered Surveys
This type of surveys will be used for the participants of the fourth age group. It allows the researcher to increase the response rate and maximize the impact on participants.
Data Collection and Analysis Procedures
The collection of data from the surveys will be performed with the usage of Google Forms. This tool allows the researcher to instantly accumulate the results of the survey. At the same time, the Google Forms app is completely free. It will be very easy for the participants to take part in the survey. Moreover, the letter of consent will be attached to the survey page. Thus, each participant will be able to read its text and grant consent by clicking on the button. As can be seen, this is the easiest and cheapest way of survey performance. In regard to the group administrated surveys, they will be performed by the students among the participants of the chosen age group. The students that are supposed to perform the survey will achieve the financial reward. For the aims of data procession, the tools of SPSS Statistics package will be used.
Since the biggest part of the survey is supposed to be performed through the internet, the majority of expenses will include the costs of group administered survey. Since the aim of the survey is to provide results for about 100 participants from this group, it seems to be adequate that it will be necessary to perform the survey twice. It will include the costs of the students’ payments totaling $100 and the costs of survey forms production, namely $50. Talking about the online survey, the costs can include the payments for the survey advertising on the Internet. The advertising shall be performed through the social networks such as Facebook. The participants will be able to evaluate their risk of future heart diseases and receive the recommendations for the prevention of morbidity free of charge. The costs of advertising through Facebook are estimated at the level of $75 per month. Due to the fact that a number of participants for the three selected groups will be about 300 persons, the advertising campaign will take about 2 months. The advantage of such approach is that social networks allow the researcher to perform targeted advertising, which demonstrates the advertising message only to the required age groups.
The proposed research is aimed at evaluating the hypotheses about the positive effect of education on heart disease risks for the prevention of HD. The research will be performed in the form of a survey. The research will summarize and analyze data obtained from four age groups of participants. The prospective budget of the research is $300. The proposed research will help to define the importance of educational programs as a tool for preventing HD. In addition to this, the study of the most common heart issues among the participants will help to understand the most significant vectors for the development of HD educational policy.
The limitation of the survey is that the research does not provide a study of participants within the whole state for the fourth group. The local character of this group limits the possibilities of learning the whole process. Another limitation is that the participants’ heart problems are defined without an expert diagnostics that can lead to errors while diagnosing the participants. These limitations are explained by the lack of confidence in providing a sufficiently large budget for the project.