This research proposal will focus on a phenomenon of domestic violence against women and ways of implementation of the recovery program. The increasing hazard of domestic violence demands a special approach to be settled because of its corrupt influence on society.
Two types of domestic violence can be distinguished: physical and psychological. Psychological abuse is a hidden form of violence that could be not obvious because it is not accompanied by drubbing and visual marks on the body. On the contrary, the physical one is characterized not only by maims but a deep emotional trauma as well. All types of home violence have psychological prerequisites and such further effects as mental decay.
Aims and Objectives of Research Proposal
The core purposes of the research proposal are the following: a comprehensive and in-depth examination of home violence against females and the development of the recovery program basis. Key objectives include the following: to identify the domestic violence phenomena; to distinguish methods of research; to develop the recovery program, and to consider the ethical aspects of collecting and processing data.
The essence of the recovery program for women is an individual work of psychologists with victims of violence and the rehabilitation centers creation. In order to reach success in this area, the appropriate knowledge and concrete data must be accumulated. This study aims to collect data and consider the support approaches for creating and implementing a proper recovery program in the future.
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British sources focus on the development of a set of government programs to protect women from domestic violence. In 2012 and 2013, 76 females were exposed to the cruelty of the partner or ex-partner; it is the lowest number since 1998 and 1999 (HM Government 2014); nevertheless, it is a dreadful statistic. British sources focus on the development of the set of government programs to protect women from domestic violence. The developed legislation aims to punish an offender, but there is not enough material that can help prevent violence or soften consequences. The background target of this research proposal is not only to help women but support men in overcoming the craving for violence. The proposal does not focus on trying to punish but endeavors to assist in rehabilitation.
From a practical standpoint, the rehabilitation program will actually help the victims of violence. However, it should be noted that there are centers for women and children who annually provide support to victims of domestic violence. In 2013, 9,577 women and 10,117 children were protected during the year by respective organizations (Howard, Laxton & Musoke 2013, p. 6). There exist call centers where every woman can get anonymous advice and moral support (Woman’s Aid). However, the actual help with direct contact is the best alternative. For this reason, the new programs should be designed and the previous ones improved.
Definitions and Key Concepts
Any research cannot be conducted without an attentive study of the main concepts. Taking into consideration the examined sources, the following definitions are formed.
Violence is an act or number of actions that cause humiliation and insult of another individual’s honor and dignity. Typically, they consist of the infliction of physical injuries and psychological pressure on the victim. Cruelty can manifest itself in different forms. A type of violence is often determined by gender, race, type of relationship between a victim and an attacker. Most victims are women because they are naturally weaker than men and are often in social dependence from them.
Violence against women is a special kind of cruelty and “any act of gender-based violence that results in, or is likely to result in, physical, sexual or psychological harm or suffering to women, including threats of such acts, coercion or arbitrary deprivation of liberty, whether occurring in public or in private life” (Matczak, Hatzidimitriadou & Lindsay 2011, p. 5). It implies the humiliation of females and girls (verbal, psychological, physical, etc.) that deprives them of the right to control the closeness of contact (more often sexual) with a man. A male has an advantage because of his physical power, thus consciously or unconsciously insulting a female. For this reason, it leads to sexual or another kind of violence that has a sexual context, including deterrence. Women undergo violence “behind the closed doors.” Therefore, domestic violence is characterized by a special cynicism. The place that should be a stronghold and a center of protection against external damaging factors becomes a prison and a place of physical, sexual, psychological, and economic violence for females. Manifestations of domestic violence intensify in stressful situations such as deterioration of couple relationships, job loss, age crisis, and different types of addiction. It is characterized by cyclic recurrence because, during lasting relationships, any violence is not limited by a single episode. For this reason, women need skilled assistance at all levels.
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The epistemological position (Raddon n.d.) of the study is based on principles of criticism, fundamentalism, and normativism. The development of rehabilitation programs should be grounded on solid facts and critical analysis of the sources that do not allow essential errors. The core task of the program is to help victims; therefore, its detailed design and additions must consider the rules and regulations at all levels. It concerns not only the sphere of professional psychologists and sociologists but the scope of the legislation as well.
Methodology and Methods
The recovery program for women must be designed based on in-depth scientific research. The research methodology includes a set of generally accepted methods in sociology and psychology. They are necessary for proper data collecting and processing. A set of these research instruments consists of a questionnaire, private conversations, a group experiment interview, an exploration of documents, a partaker observation (through the involvement of the researcher in the group/space being studied), research of test situations, and others (Bryman 2012). For a diagnosis of socially significant qualities of the individual, the methods of expert and group assessment of personality could be implemented.
In the discussed research proposal, the following background methods are selected: observation, questionnaires, and interviews. They are called to collect qualitative and quantitative data. Qualitative data, which has been used in the previous paragraphs, can be received by studying scientific literature, documents, and previous researches. It concerns the concepts and theories of domestic violence, information about social recovery services, and government protection programs. Qualitative data (statistics) can be taken from official resources or collected by social interventions and active participation in helping victims of domestic violence.
Sample and Sampling
The target audience can be formed on commonly developed principles and include representatives from different geographical regions of Great Britain. The research proposition gives an opportunity to cover any territory for sampling. Official databases can provide any information about the population of the UK (Office for National Statistics n.d.).
Young and adult individuals from various parts of the chosen area will be offered to answer questions or interview. The coefficient toward the general population could be calculated after choosing 100-200 (or more) people. It is significant to work separately with women and men who express readiness to discuss their psychological problems and talk about the causes that provoked uncontrollable anger and violence against their partners. Therefore, two types of questionnaire must be developed.
The general results of the work with a sample and proper conclusions about the influence of variables on the level of domestic violence will give an opportunity to design an efficient recovery program for women.
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Information about abused women and their partners, who are ready to receive support, will be collected with the help of the questionnaire method and testing. It can be passed at the designated place in the form of a face-to-face conversation or through the Internet as well. It is assumed that individuals should be able to choose a personal way to share their experiences and considerations on the discussed problem.
Participants can choose to provide precise information about them face-to-face or answer questions and discuss them anonymously. It is considered to include the following points in the test questionnaire:
1. Have you experienced home violence?
2. Do you have children?
3. What status does your partner have (boyfriend/husband)?
4. How long have your relationships been lasting?
5. What kinds of domestic violence have you experienced?
6. How often do you suffer from male violence?
7. Have you ever sought protection from outside?
8. What types of mental problems do you have after a conflict?
9. Why have you decided to stay/not to stay with your partner?
10. What reasons and/or situations could cause violence outbreaks?
11. How do you intend to resist the aggression of the perpetrator?
1. Have you felt violent outbursts?
2. Do you have children?
3. What status does your partner have (girlfriend/wife)?
4. How long have your relationships been lasting?
5. What types of domestic violence have been caused by your behavior?
6. How often do you offend your woman by assault and battery?
7. How do you evaluate such behavior?
8. Have you ever sought professional support?
9. What kind of psychological discomfort do you have before and after a conflict?
10. Why have you decided to stay/not to stay with your partner?
11. What reasons and/or situations could cause violent outbursts?
12. How do you intend to resist rage?
The questions about sex, race, and age as well as the financial situation inside the family could be discussed in a separate questionnaire at the very beginning of a chat with a counselor (sociologist or psychologist).
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Ethical Considerations and Limitations
The ethical side of the research provides a cautious approach to the organization and the performance of support activities. As a rule, women who experience domestic violence have an unstable psyche and emotional disorders. An expert must be willing to work with serious cases, including mood swings, anxiety, panic attacks, and emotional isolation. In addition, the rehabilitation program implementer should be alien to any form of discrimination, including racial and social ones. An important condition for success is a conscious rejection of any form of condemnation and denunciation. Shame, doubt, and fear of condemnation can negatively affect all recovery program participants. It especially concerns men who are searching for support to overcome mental health problems and start a new life. Numerous males feel deeply guilty about their behavior, knowing that it causes sufferings to their beloved ones. For this reason, it is necessary to provide proper assistance to men in order to avoid new incidents.
It is significant to give participants an opportunity to complete a questionnaire form and pass tests at home (receiving a list of questions through the Internet). Furthermore, personal confidential conversations with the leaders of the project could become an excellent alternative for those who need an eye-to-eye contact. The second type of people can successfully work in small groups for mutual psychological support, using the brainstorming method.
Another moral and ethical issue is data processing. Any answers and revelations of the rehabilitation program participants should not be made public without their consent. Every manipulation with the completed questionnaire should be discussed with the person who answered the questions. If a participant is not ready to give a straight answer to the question, he or she should not be pressed to reply. The core objective of the sociology and psychology experts in the implementation of the recovery program is not to hurt anyone. Therefore, the options for creating the psychologically comfortable conditions for exchanging the experience must be provided.
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General Study Design
Generally, the discussed project is based on the scientific method that includes the following steps: identifying a field of research and forming the core aims and objectives; identifying epistemological position; distinguishing core concepts; designing the research methods to develop the basis for the future recovery program; collecting and analyzing relevant data (qualitative and quantitative); drawing a conclusion, i.e. summarizing results; reporting findings, and testing the designed recovery program.
Designing the research proposal and exploring the chosen issue, the following conclusions have been done. First of all, women often face the following two types of domestic violence: physical and psychological. Second of all, violence must be prevented or reduced to a minimum. Numerous governmental programs are designed only to protect females from domestic violence and punish the abuser. However, there is a lack of services for the physical and psychological recovery of the victims. The research and development approaches enable to provide qualified personal assistance to women and men in overcoming home violence. The benefit of such a program includes collecting qualitative and quantitative data, questionnaire designing and information processing, face-to-face interviews, and group therapy; and it is obvious. It is aimed not only at recovering women but also at psychological assistance to men who suffer from the anger outbursts and commit violence against women.