Psychology is a relatively new science that, however, has a long history of development and evolution. The first psychological notions date back to the ancient times, where they existed in the form of philosophical doctrines. Nowadays, psychology is a separate science, which has its own subject, object, methods of researches, and categorical apparatus. Nevertheless, it still falls under the great influence of the allied studies, such as sociology, philosophy, physiology, among many others. In its turn, psychology represents a diverse system of sub-disciplines and subtopics that are responsible for the investigation of the human mind and matters.
The Influence of Psychological Diversity
In fact, psychology differs a lot from other sciences. To begin with, it bases its concepts on the experiments and conducted studies. It means that the psychological theory is closely connected with practical assignments and observations. Secondly, psychology tends to evaluate, investigate, analyze, and discuss the regularities of the human psyche from different perspectives. According to Plante (2011), psychology exists in approximately 54 divisions, which evaluate the same objects in various ways.
From this point of view, it becomes obvious that the psychological diversity makes a positive influence on its development. A great variety of scientifically proved schools, streams, and concepts allows a versatile and profound analysis of the human mind. Moreover, psychology possesses brilliant possibilities for the comparison and many-sided study of its main notions and issues. Finally, it is essential to mention that psychology deals with great amounts of empirical data, which are reliable and prolific enough to be practically implemented (Stanovich, 2010).
Psychological Sub-Disciplines and Subtopics
It has already been mentioned that psychology is an original and unified science. However, it contains many sub-disciplines, which can be treated as separate studies. These psychological disciplines make a great contribution to the investigation of the peculiarities of the human mind.
Moreover, it is necessary to mention about the psychological subtopics. These are separate concepts of study that focus on the research of a certain phenomenon. For example, the concept of motivation presupposes the existence of some forces, which stimulate human activities and development, in a certain way. Although, motivation is a psychological subtopic, it is of equal value in sociology, philosophy, linguistics, education, and other systems of knowledge. Therefore, one can assume that psychological subtopics have a poly-semantic nature, and they can be widely used in the natural sciences.
The approach-avoidance and types of emotion concepts are similar to the subtopic of motivation. According to Eder (2013), this theory discovers the influence of emotions and stimuli on the development of the motivation, which can exist in the form of memories, anticipated qualities, or abstract concepts.
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The Theory of Behaviorism
The theory of behaviorism was introduced in the early 20th century by the followers of the Gestalt psychology (Gazzaniga, 2010). The representatives of this theory pay a great attention to the investigation of the characteristics of the human behavior. According to their studies, every stimulus of the surrounding world results in a certain reaction, produced by human mind. Studying the relations between stimuli and reactions can explain the functioning of the human psyche, as well. Moreover, behaviorism is closely connected with the cognitive approaches and experimental psychology.
In addition, behaviorism deals with such psychological subtopics as aggression, deception, and binge drinking. For example, every pattern of behavior (aggression, frustration, for example) is shaped by the surrounding factors, influencing the personality of human beings in the process of their self-development. The same is true for the problem of deception and binge drinking. Behaviorists have investigated that the binge drinking occurs in a person that spends too much time in the corresponding environment. Therefore, it is possible to conclude that behaviorism as a psychological sub-discipline connects the manifestations of the human actions with the acquired knowledge, experience, and models of behavior, accepted in a particular society (King, 2011).
Peculiarities of the Cognitive Psychology as a Sub-Discipline
Another important sub-discipline is cognitive psychology. This part of psychology deals with the researches in the field of cognitive processes, such as memory, attention, thinking, language use and many others. It investigates the problems, peculiarities, features, principles, and mechanism of functioning of the abovementioned processes. Cognitive psychology is one of the oldest sub-disciplines, which is responsible for the study of the essential mental processes (Anderson, 2010).
One of the main subtopics of the cognitive psychology is the phenomenon of the cognitive dissonance. It appears when a person feels contradictions between his or her thoughts and actions, beliefs and behavior. Usually, this state leads to the general oppression of all organism’s functions. Cognitive psychology aims at researching this phenomenon and finding the appropriate solutions, as well.
The other problem of cognitive psychology is the question of false memories. This phenomenon involves such conditions of a person, which presupposes the existence of some unreal memories, caused by certain traumatic experience. In fact, cognitive psychology deals with different deviations in the mental processes and suggests solutions for them.
The Relations between Psychological Sub-Disciplines and Other Sciences
In fact, both behaviorism and cognitive psychology are widely used in different natural and social sciences. For example, the theory of behaviorism is essential in politics and sociology as it helps in predicting the displays of human behavior in various situations. Additionally, it provides the explanation of different social phenomena, based on the study of the behavior. Similarly, cognitive psychology is necessary for the field of education and linguistics as it describes the mechanisms of memorization, creativity, and thinking. Therefore, its findings and principles can find a great reflection in the pedagogical methodologies.
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Theoretical Perspective of Sub-Disciplines and Subtopics
My theoretical perspective is a social one. The social behavior, principles, and regularities of social life form the interest of the social psychology. Nevertheless, behavioristic theory has also contributed to the development of the social knowledge. The same is true in for cognitive psychology that studies not only individuals but also collective forms of mental processes. Therefore, it is possible to say that the above-mentioned sub-disciplines of psychology play a great role in shaping my theoretical perspective.
In addition, I believe that the study of motivational theories and theories of emotions are also essential for me, in terms of their scientific value and interest.
My Psychological Contribution to Society
Behaviorism, motivational theories, and cognitive psychology become more and more important, in the modern world. Their role is exceptional in the analysis of the workplace settings. In my opinion, contemporary employment does not focus attention on the definition of the work but emphasizes the importance of the human resource. From this point of view, behaviorism plays a significant role in the study of the workplace and its features. With the help of behavioristic theory, it is possible to predict different manifestations of human behavior and solve any conflicts at early stages. In addition, behaviorism provides a look at the patterned models of behavior that people tend to demonstrate at a workplace.
It is impossible to overestimate the role of the cognitive psychology in the educational process. Education covers every sphere that utilizes all mental processes in equal proportions. The study of cognitive psychology will help create fruitful educational methods and pedagogic methodologies with the consideration of the characteristics and possibilities of the human mental processes, such as memory and thinking, in particular.
Furthermore, the above-mentioned psychological sub-disciplines are important for the maintenance of the personal health and well-being. For example, cognitive psychology researches different deviations and suggests the most effective solutions. Therefore, the study of its principles will help avoid any discomfort and remain in both physical and mental health.
Without doubts, leisure is also affected by psychological concepts. I suppose that the knowledge in the psychological subtopics helps establish good relationships with other people, in terms of work and rest.
To sum up, psychology is a many-sided science, which combines findings of various natural and social sciences. Its concepts, sub-disciplines, and subtopics are of great value in the modern world. It is not a secret that the understanding of human behavior is the key point, determining person’s successful life in the society. Psychology helps reveal different peculiarities and features of human minds, which facilitate our lives and world perception.