The book title is Global Governance in the Twenty-First Century. Editors are John N. Clarke and Geoffrey R. Edwards. The book consists of three parts which enable the reader to pay attention to the issues that are related to the processes and challenges of current management processes. The authors reveal the theme of local, national, and international management and governance.
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The main argument of the authors highlights that the regulation of international relations in the modern world is based on the respect of the sovereignty of each country. Nevertheless, the sovereignty of many countries is now in question. International treaties are relative guarantors of security, but since the end of the World War II, many nations have fought for their self-determination. Governments of various countries understand the responsibility in face of the international community and, sometimes, voluntarily restrict their domestic rights to maintain peaceful international relations. It allows people to establish a good cooperation in the sphere of culture, art, economics, and politics. Peaceful cooperation allows each country to experience the benefits of international markets and globalization. The process of globalization has influenced the development of all spheres of human life and along with technological factors makes it possible to develop the country. On the other hand, the Internet has much reduced the impact of the state control on news and information. It affects public policy-making and governance. National issues and interests of ethnic groups are also in a state of change. These changes, according to the authors, may affect capitalist society and lead to anarchy and negative changes in the future human history. The study of this issue is becoming more complicated and multifaceted. Fluctuations between such processes as globalization and fragmentation are especially noticeable in recent years.
The book reveals the fact that the modern world is characterized by sharp differences between the relative peace and outbreaks of violence, unrest, and local wars. It should be noted that the fear of the possible nuclear war constrains international conflicts. However, they occur more frequently and are getting the more intense. The authors believe that this is due to the globalization and intensification of fragmentary pressures.
The writers note that it is necessary to be prepared for future policy changes and work on up-to-date solutions as well as try to prevent new military conflicts, political turmoil, and economic crisis. They find that it is crucial to develop effective tools and methods of quality management of global processes. The important question is whether the existing political system is ready for such rapid changes and whether they control the activities of people and organizations to maintain peace and prosperity. Many states have intensified their reforms in the economic, social, and political sphere in order to prevent the influence of negative factors associated with globalization. Each state should review its tactics and strategies to ensure that it is ready for new impacts. It is important, according to the authors, to be ready to the reconfiguration of the state if it is necessary. Subdivisions of government organizations should ensure quality operation and effective cooperation in regions if it is needed.
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Moreover, the book highlights the theme of a significant redistribution of power in the world that took place through the discovery of important natural resources like oil. It shows that the world must be ready for new political challenges every day. Technological change is a guarantee that the political arena may welcome the country that had previously been poor. The principles of guiding global processes by only strong states have some shortcomings and thus have to be modified. Similar changes are also observed in the social and cultural life. For example, the emergence of new religious movements and political views is a confirmation of the fact that people should consider international management in a new direction.
The authors set the goal to explain the readers that the state is subject to variable effects regardless of internal management and has to be constantly reformed and improved. Each country should determine the prior directions of development and ways of cooperation with the international community.
The book reveals such an important issue as the interaction of domestic and international factors in the formation of policy and their mutual influence. The authors emphasize that society lives in an increasingly complex environment. Thus, people have to understand that the system of relationships forms the state; states, in turn, form the system. The actual policy is often different from that mentioned in the Constitution, laws, or international agreements. According to the authors, it is a matter of paramount importance to achieve the moment when agreements are executed.
Important questions, which the authors reveal, stress that the world today is more complex than ever before. International laws begin to take a leadership position. On the other hand, they become more reasonable and justified. It is true not only for states and governments, but in regard to the rights, duties, and freedoms of the individual. States have voluntarily reduced their domestic rights especially in trade, criminal law, and human rights to maintain international laws.
The theme of globalization is ambiguously covered in the book. It is understandable because globalization is an extremely complicated constant movement that depends on quick changes in various spheres of life. It is especially evident that identity issue has gained an increasingly important role since the late 20th century. The writers consider that the interests of nations, sub-national groups, and moments of interaction of interests between communities should be investigated. The authors also discuss the phenomenon like global culture and cosmopolitan worldview of people. The new vision causes changes in local communities.
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The influence of the media is one of the topics considered by the authors to emphasize how this factor impacted on the formation of states. The media play an important role during the civil wars, local and international conflicts. It can contribute to either resolving the negative issues or promoting the growth of tension in the region. This point is to attract the attention of all people to the means of information as they influence the life of the whole planet, a separate state, and an individual. The media have changed tactics behavior even of military organizations. Previously, the military forces played a major role in ensuring the sovereignty of the state, but now the Internet and media solutions can manage local and international issues.
It is a significant advantage of this book that the authors explain how political issues are interdependent as well as how state and non-state factors and information technology influence world markets. All spheres of life and state government are interdependent and mutually shape the modern world.
The book highlights an interesting question such as the growth of NGOs. It is important to emphasize that such organizations cooperate with the government and have a significant impact in recent years. They are often the initiators of combating conflict situations and, sometimes, may encourage the use of weapons. It is especially noticeable in the third world countries. NGOs are open to international cooperation and provide new creative community projects that improve quality of life. They enable people of different nationalities and outlook to find joint solutions that improve life in the country or the whole world. The authors explain very clearly how this type of organizations may influence decisions that used to be under the authority of the political elite. Many governments fear to lose control and thus oppose the positive processes of globalization. The associations of people who are socially active help start or make more rapid changes in the country or region. The developments of technologies that enable people from different countries to communicate provide more exposure to those organizations. The proper purpose and personal perseverance of members can bring positive results for humanity. Some countries have begun to actively involve non-governmental organizations in the field of public administration. The issue of NGOs is interesting for readers and makes a person aspire to explore it further in the future.
The authors successfully use examples and facts to explain their point of view. However, the statistics is quite few. It is interesting to see a different view on the question of public administration. Authors considered not only globalization or economic issues, but also the influence of Christianity. The book also highlights the ethical issues related to human security, globalization, and significant changes in the 21st century. The book is written by people who are professionals in in various fields that are associated with the management. They are teachers, civil servants, economists, and consultants which constantly have the opportunity to influence the solution of important social issues.
Thus, the book is relevant to a wide range of readers. It highlights the issues to be addressed at the national and international levels. The authors not only describe problems, but also explain the relationship between them and try to find effective solutions. The questions considered in the book relate to each person regardless of his/her nation, location, or political opinion.