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Calvert, Sandra, and Barbara Wilson. The Handbook of Children, Media and Development.Chichester: Wiley-Blackwell, 2011. Print.

The authors explain the social penetration theory. They note that greater communication is closely linked to high level of increased attribution and intimacy. According to the theory, every relationship develops as those involved become closer to one another. The scholars contend that though development of online relationships is a slow process, when developed they can be compared with the relationships formed based on face-to-face interaction.

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Ciciora, Phil. Online Interactions Have Positive Effects for Real Life Communities. Illinois News: 4th May, 2010. Web. 21Nov. 2012.

The author argues that people ought not to perceive social networks such as Facebook or Twitter as fostering real-life communication. She presents a number of facts in her attempt to prove that online interaction is needed for the effectiveness of real-life friendships including those formed on the basis of face-to-face communication.

Kramer, Nicole. Face-to-Face Communication Over Internet: Emotions in a Web of Culture, Language and Technology. Cambridge: New York, 2011. Print.

The book presents various findings on non-verbal communication and how it is affected by emotions, perception, and cognition. The author also explains the processes involved in face-to-face communication.

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Leonard, Marion. Gender in the Music Industry: Rock, Discourse and Girl Power. Aldershot [u.a]: Ashgate, 2007. Print.

In his book, the author suggests that the image people produce online may not normally represent a clear picture of what they actually are. He contends that people who interact face-to-face are normally reserved and not ready to fully disclose themselves. He further notes that on the other hand, intimacy is mostly experienced by those who interact on face-to-face basis.

Newman, Barbara. Development Through Life: A psychological Approach. Belmont, CA: Wadsworth Cengage Learning, 2012. Print.

The author discusses the fact that most children are increasingly discovering that they can experience a greater level of self-disclosure through online communication. He further notes that online communication provides an opportunity for an in-depth communication between friends. He, therefore, contends that internet can supplement face-to-face interaction especially through instant messaging.

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Sprecher, Susan. Encyclopedia of Human Relationships. Thousand Oaks: SAGE Publications, 2009. Print.

The author traces the development of online communication from the point that the involved individuals limit their interaction to more informal issues. He identifies such online tools as chat rooms and a number of social network sites. He faults the effectiveness of face-to-face communication in initiating strong relationships, because in face-to-face communication people always focus on the attractiveness of those they want to interact with, and thus, the initial stages of strong relationship require online communication.

Subrahmanyam, Keveri, and David Smahel. Digital Youth: Connecting Developmental Tasks to Online Behavior. New York: Springer, 2011. Print.

The authors note the need for friends to support one another in order to attain a high quality friendship. They contend that as compared to face-to-face communication, those whose friendship is based on the online communication encounter less closeness, and therefore, low quality friendship.

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Trepte, Sabine, and Reinecke. Privacy Online. Berlin: Springer, 2011. Print.

The scholars note that even though online communication was initially characterized by high level of self-disclosure, currently this situation is slowly changing and is being overtaken by the level of self-disclosure experienced in face-to-face communication. According to them, the issue is majorly based on the continued understanding that the level of privacy in online communication is greatly lower than that involving a few confidants sharing on face-to-face basis.

Wing, Wong. Online Communication and Real-life Friendship Quality. May, 2008. Web. 21 Nov.2012.

The author presented a research which was conducted to establish the kind of relationship that exists between the quality of real life friendship and online communication. He tested a number of hypotheses including that which states that online communication negatively affects the quality of real-life communication. According to the article, the theory is based on the premise that before the appearance of social networks and instant messaging facilities, most of those, who usually interact online, used to spent much of their time to interact with others face-to-face.

Wright, Kelvin, and Webb Lynne. Computer-Mediated Communication in Personal Relationships. New York: Peter Lang, 2010. Print.

The authors sought to examine the various aspects of interpersonal communication as well as those relationships based on computer mediated communication. They established various facts on the social construction theory and its explanation of both online and face-to-face communication. They further explained the effects of online mediated communication on those relationships that have been formed from face to face communication.

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